Development of the Unconscious in Britain Assignment

Added on - 16 Sep 2019

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The Development of the Unconscious in BritainCG20013/01/2017Word Count: 2537
In this assignment, the different theories of Klein and Winnicott will be discussed andanalysed. The theories of Klein and Winnicott describe the unconscious and sub-consciousemotions and phantasies. Winnicott is a paediatrician who studied psychoanalysis withKlein. He is a leading psychoanalyst who is well known in the field of theories (Winnicott,2013).He accepted the Kleinian hypotheses however he saw the key part of goodconnections are established in the miniaturized scale collaboration with individuals (Segal,2004). Melanie Klein was a standout amongst the most popular scholars amidpsychoanalytic development. She is indicated in the analysis of youngsters and took afterAnna Freud in working straightforwardly with kids (Heimann et al, 2013).Klein's hypothesis of the unconscious phantasy underlies each mental procedure and goeswith all the mental movement. There is a somatic representation of mental events. Much ofindividual’s activities can be termed as converting the psychological thoughts into somaticrepresentation (Klein, 2013). Melanie Klein had amplified and created Sigmund Freud'scomprehension of the unconscious mind. Klein expressed children’s experience of theunconscious phantasy influenced all the adolescence interpersonal relations (Britzman,2012). The internal representation of unconscious phantasy plays an important role in howthe individuals relate to others. Early youth connections build up mental models and mentalrepresentation that an individual create for the duration of their life (Segal, 2012). Thesemental models later impact the individual’s experience and their relationships but this isimpacted in an unconscious manner.Phantasy is a perspective of an infant amid their initial phases of development. Thesephantasies are unconscious and the child is not able to differentiate between conscious andunconscious phantasies. In the prelingual stage, a child is not able to distinguish betweenreality and imagination. Phantasies are a representation of genetic needs and drives(Steiner, 2016).They show up in dreams and in the plays of an infant. Phantasy is impartedfrom inward and outside reality. They are altered by various sentiments and are thenanticipated into this present reality and the imaginary world. An infant makes sense of theexternal world through phantasies. Every new expression of an infant is firstly perceived andprocessed by unconscious phantasy which is evident in all mental activities of the infant.Phantasy is the mental expression of both aggressive and libidinal impulses (Anderson,2014).Moreover, Winnicott further addressed this and stated that an infant’s dependence on theirparent passes three stages of dependency – relative dependence, absolute dependenceand then leads to independence (Lamothe, 2014).In absolute dependence, the infantdoesn’t separately identify themselves from their parent. Enough experiences are not
perceived yet to distinguish events or compare one type of caregiving to another. The infantachieves different fragments of care; parts of that are healthy but also parts of care that areunhealthy. The infant must endure those parts of care that are a misfit to their needs(Winnicott, 2014).Winnicott has intriguing concepts in regards to specific elements of child parent relationshipwhich are vital, essentially the caregiving relationship and how it develops the infant as theymove along in life. According to Winnicott this relationship consists of three overlappingphases. Within these phases, care takes diverse meanings than the previous stage. Thesephases are not distinct and do not have a definitive finish, with the infant and the caregiverswinging back and forth in overlapping stages (Caldwell & Joyce,2014).Satisfying parentalcare can be classified into these three stages. Firstly, the concept of holding. A child is bornwith a tendency to hold things in which the child studies the environment. Secondly, it is thenotion of the infant and mother living together (Lamothe, 2014). Thirdly the father, motherand the infant all live together. So, though the infant is holding the mother initially, later italso comes under the influence of father (Flynn, 2015). During an infant’s life, holding isestablished at an earlier stage and implies how the environment maintenances every aspect.It is additionally the time where the guardian is settled in with the child. (Schwartz, 2016).The child and the parental figure are plainly reasonable as one unit, outside of time andeveryday concerns. Amid holding, the newborn child has their first encounters of proceduresthat are finished and of those going unfinished. These add to the advancement of thenewborn child's brain development (Anderson, 2014).Furthermore, another theory Klein viewed was the Paranoid-Schizoid Position. This denotesexternal and internal object relations, anxieties and defenses. The complexity of the fantasyidea involved in these developments can in some aspects be inferred as unconvincing. Canfantasy stem alone from the brain? (Williams, 2016).As per Klein schizoid ways of relatingare never given up. The paranoid-schizoid position is afterwards followed by a more maturedepressive position. The paranoid schizoid state of mind in children exist from birth to four orsix months of age. These fantasies are constructed upon the understanding that there hasbeen a sense of limit in its exterior world and internal world from the start. (McIvor, 2015).This is shattering of the embryonic ego, it is not a part of explicit memory. These episodes ofmemory are experienced during adulthood. Implicit memory forms a part of our neural pathhence we retain a part of it. A therapist has tendency to evoke these feelings(Kalsched,2014).The depressive position is firstly experienced during the first year of the child. It is presentthroughout the adolescence and irregularly for the duration of life. It is the acknowledgment
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