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Diabetes in India1Diabetes in IndiaByCourseProfessor’s NameInstitutionLocation of InstitutionDate
Diabetes in India2Diabetes health inequality in IndiaIntroductionHealth inequalities are the differences in accessing various health services ranging fromcurative, preventive or promotional services. The health inequalities of diabetes are dynamic andreflect multiple determinants. The disparity in the health sector are judged to be unfair and unjustand should be avoided. Health inequalities are always seen through the various pattern in accessof health across the populations with different underlying social advantage and disadvantagessuch as prestige, power and wealth or other stratification in the society. Studies across the low,middle and high-income countries are showing that health inequalities are not only related togenetic or biological factors but social factors contribute immensely to the population (Carlisle2000, p.67).The continued prevalence of diabetes has risen to be an epidemic in India as a result ofthe increased surge in the recent decades. In the year 2000, India recorded the highest number ofindividuals with diabetes having 31.7 million of diabetic patients seconded by China with 20.8million and the United States with 17.7 million being the third. Baum (2008, p.45) notes that thediabetes prevalence will be two times from 170 million in 366 million in 2030 worldwide withthe highest number experienced in India. Currently, the country of India faces uncertain future asa result of the burden that diabetes may impose on the nation. Numerous factors are affecting theprevalence of diabetes across the nation of India and knowing these factors is essential inconduct some changes when dealing with such challenges of health.The increased diabetes prevalence in India occurs because of genetic factors coupled withthe environmental factors. The environmental influences of diabetes include obesity, steadyurban migration, changes in lifestyle and the increased standard of living. Various diabetes
Diabetes in India3incidence patterns in India are associated with the geographical distribution. It is approximatedthat diabetes prevalence in the populations in rural areas of India is only a quarter that of thepopulation in urban areas. The study conducted by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)indicate that the Northern population of India is less affected as compared to Maharashtra andTamil Nadu. The evidence on the contributing factors to health inequality of diabetes andspecific disparities of diabetes will guide effort in future to decrease the unequal distributions ofhealth care (De Vogl T et al. 2011, p.23). The disparity of socio-economic are seen in diabeteswith high death and incidence among the socio-economic groups. Social disparities have beennoted in India despite the worldwide coverage of the health care systems (Nettleton 2013, p.40).The access of health care should not be a question of equal potential access but should reflect theactual use of patients of the services that are available.Past explanation of diabetes health inequalities in IndiaThere have been various studies that have been engaged to comprehend the determinantsthat are crucial to health outcomes in India. The burden of health is distributed unequally indifferent population subgroups and is majorly experienced in individuals with lowersocioeconomic status who consistently incur health outcomes that are poor. The assessment ofthe health inequalities concerning social groupings assumes the existence of meaningful socialclusters that reflect the unequal allocation of resources and the opportunities in life between thevarious social gatherings. According to Baum (2008, p.17) the private places, gender,occupation, education, and religion are among the stratifies that can be utilized in determiningthe social groups. The income-related inequalities are among the contributory factors that havepropounded poor health outcomes in India (Braveman and Gruskin 2003, p.39).
Diabetes in India4Various categories were used in the past for explaining diabetes inequalities. One of theexplanation was based on material factors. The material factors involve shelter, food and otherrisks and resources that could influence the outcomes of health. The other explanation was basedon psychosocial factors that lead to health inequalities and social group differences in health. Thepsychosocial health impacts originate from feelings of discrimination, stress and low support tosocial experiences. The negative psychological states had effects on the physical health throughthe activation of the biological stress response which may result in high blood pressure and otheroutcomes.More so, the behavioral differences were also considered as a contributor to theinequalities of health. For instance, the behavior change might attribute to disparities in healththrough the different habits of eating, the prevalence in smoking or the increased rates of cancerscreening in the social groups in the population (McNamara et al.205, p.86). Previously, someliterature that has documented the systematic and pervasive inequalities in India. Healthinequalities are disproportionate of the burden of the disease or risk factors of behaviorexperienced by the subgroups in the population. In India, most researchers have focused theirstudies of inequalities in health by the use of the status of socio-economic. The social conditionsin which various individuals live have been the primary influence of acquiring better health. Thefactors such as food insecurity, poverty, inadequate housing and social discrimination andexclusion and the low occupational status crucial determinants of diabetes, deaths, andinequalities in India (Marmot et al. 2008, p. 87).Public health has explained the health inequity through the social determinants of health.This directly implies that the social determinants contribute to the health inequalities between thesocial groups because the social determinants of wellbeing are not disseminated reasonably over