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Discrimination | Civil Right Act 1964

Added on - 19 Jul 2022

In this document, we discuss Discrimination it is defined as treating an individual or a group differently from others. ‘The Civil Rights Act of 1964 bars prejudice based on race, colour, religion, sex, and national origin, rendering previously common forms of unequal treatment illegal’.It generally involves low payment, labour exploitation as well as improper treatment amongst individuals depending on their status and skills.

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1.Introduction:
Discrimination is not too strange to people; in contrast, it has been becoming increasingly
widespread in every corner of life. Perception has been associated with the long human
history, which generates not solely the colorful picture of our development but famous
anecdotes regarding the world order by struggles of social classes. Discrimination is defined
as treating an individual or a group differently from others. ‘The Civil Rights Act of 1964 bars
prejudicebased on race,color, religion,sex, and nationalorigin,rendering previously
common forms of unequal treatment illegal’ (Devah Pager, 2006). It generally involves in low
payment, labor exploitation as well as improper treatment amongst individuals depending on
their status and skills. The research report today emphasizes the overt understanding that
the whites were to be paid much more than people of color in American society. The paper
examines the ways that discrimination is inevitable in communities by centering on two
academic questions: (1) Why is discrimination considered a problem for society? (2) What
role should business play to avoid its impact? To respond to these queries, the full range of
hints available from social science research can be resolvable solutions.
2.Perspectives on the issue taken from a literature review:
In a bookThe Spirit Level, Wilkinson and Pickett (2010) wonder why it is that ‘at the peak of
human material success and procedural attainment, we recognize ourselves anxiety-ridden,
liable to despair, nervous about how other see us, doubtfulof our friendships, stimulated to
consume with little or no community life’ (p.3). The universal agreement, social capital, and
social network all emerge to be missing. In terms of such alterations, social racism is
probably increasing, as is intolerance against both people with mental illness and sexual
variation, other types of disability, religion as well as other elements, which identify people as
not ‘us’ but ‘them.’ Wilkinson and Pickett (2010) realize that the weak gender is vulnerable to
suffer from mental illness in more unequal societies. Whether this is linked with social
attitudes to women and their position in public or some various explanations is not easeful to
learn. Studies among animals demonstrate that low social status influences the degree of
and reacts to the different chemicals in the brain (Wilkinson and Pickett, 2010). Thus,
immoral behaviors in the social bond amongst individuals are highly likely to lead to a sense
of poor self-esteem and poor self-image, which contributes to developing the degree of poor
mental health significantly.
It can be pointed out from The Spirit Level that valuing growth above equality in societies
can be visibleall around us. Inequality is causing the consequences of isolation, alienation,
social estrangement, and unhappier lives; it is escalating the rate of social evils as well as
addiction; it is making a massive barrier in social relationships amongst individuals born in
the same society but into different classes; and it is one of the most critical components,
which depletes the planet’s resources. The book concludes with a positive and altering
message rather than a radical program for making sick societies better. The exclusion of
economic hurdles to feeling valued; for instance, low wages, low benefits, and low public
spending on healthcare will push up the prosperity of human potential.
In the journal of Devah Pager and Hana Shepherd published in 2008, the authors focus on
racial discrimination in all aspects of employment, housing, credit markets, and consumer
interactions.However,mostoftheargumentstendtocenteronothertypesof
discrimination– such as gender, age, and sexual orientation in the United States. They
provideashredofevidencethatitishardertomeasurethedegreeandextentof
discrimination than the act of the bias over fifty years ago. Indeed, the majority of white
Americans suppose that African or Asian Americans are most likely to either pick up job
opportunities or enjoy social benefits and incentives as equally as they do. Whileonly a third
proportion think that the gap between white Americans and the rest is difficult to fill regarding
promotional chances, salary and compensation, and housing (Pager 2007a).
DevahPagerandHanaShepherdgenerallyprovideanexplicitunderstandingof
contemporary forms of discrimination in each of four domains (e.g., education, employment,
healthcare, and the justice system). Simultaneously, their journal flourishes a comprehensive
discussionofindividual,organizational,andstructuraldiscriminationmechanism.More
importantly, the authors also make estimates, which devalue the level of discriminative
contribution to the poor social and economic outcomes of minority groups. Remarkably, the
problem of racial discrimination remains an essential factor in manipulating the current
background of social and economic inequality.
3.An original case illustrates the actions taken by B-S-G:
The pervasiveness of racial stereotypes and the tenacity of racial bias seem like the
persistent problem in American society in a long time, which is a distinct feature of American
cultural contexts. Despite the persistence of discrimination, the exposure of it to the United
States nowadays varies substantially over time and across social contexts.
The fact is that the legal context aims at the adoption of broad anti-discrimination statues in
the mid-20th century that promoted to the weighty transformation in the ways of business
conduct by employers, landlords, and other key gatekeepers. As a result, the extent of
opportunities for blacks in the period of the 60s and 70s was expressive in the aftermath of
these legal modifications. By implementing the examination in South Carolina in all aspects
of employment, wages, benefits, and even educational attainment-especially including local
economicconditions,itispresumedthatfederalanti-discriminationprogramsdirectly
dedicated to the improvement of black economic achievement (Donahue & Heckman, 1991).
In addition to anti-discrimination laws, the affirmative action policy brought optimistic effects
on the Black communities. With this proactive approach, its major requirements for federal
contractors have been connected to a 25 percent increase in the share of minority workers
and other positive impacts on Latinos and African Americans (Edelman & Petterson, 1999).
Thus, the legal environment helps to shorten the racial wage gaps as well as to produce
convincedsignalstosocialequalitybasedontheappropriatemanagementand
enforcement.
One of the most critical components of the expression of racial bias relies on the economic
growth rate. The abundance of labor supply leads to the extremely selective in hiring
practices, in which employers often tend to have their pick relevant to preferences. This is
only held on the small scale of the economy when the number of job seekers is more
significant than some job openings. On the other hand, when economic sizes expand
importantly, job openings will be shared equally amongst job seekers. For example, world
war II is the ground for American economic development to reach the number one position
compared to the rest. The faster the American economy was extending, the lower the
exposureofdiscriminationis.Accordingtomicroeconomictheories,everyonehighly
appreciates the availability when the supply is acute. So, the increasing economic status of
AfricanAmericansinthecommunityhasbeenvisibleduringthisperiodofeconomic
enlargement (Smith & Welch, 1989).
4.Discussion:
The truth is that human-beings psychologically have intense responses to inequality and
socialhierarchy.Itentreatsfeelingsofsuperiorityandinferiority,dominance,and
subordination – which expose to the way we behave and treat each other. The racial
prejudice damages the structure of personal, social, and cultural contexts and constrains the
potential growth in all phases of an entity. Ichiro Kawachi, Harvard professor and researcher
in this field, classified the discrimination as a social pollutant. It can be learned that our life
seems to be covered in darkness or seems like “nightmare,” when social relationships,
insecurities about social status, and how others act towards us produces dominant impacts
on stress, cognitive performance as well as the emotions. For instance, discrimination is
attributed to the higher rate of child abuse, crime, and bullying confirmed in public places in
American society a few years ago- the cases of a mass shooting at schools. Lastly,
inequalityisbeingregardedasanessentialenvironmentalissue,asitsteersstatus
competition; it deepens consumerism and raises personal debt.
The tendency of the new world is attempting to create the global environment as one, in
which all people are able to share joys, sorrows as well as challenges with each other and
use one currency, language, and primarily economic. Yet, a dream is also a dream due to
the difficulty of breaking the ice between people that inequality is the principal element. The
majority of people still have a mindset that some people are worth so much more than
others. As a result, the small proportion of the population is feeling anxious about how they
areperceivedandappraised.Thisleadsthattalentedpeoplehavebeenignoredby
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In Conclusion, the paper focuses on the throbbing problem in American society – discrimination, which is bringing substantial effects on business, community, and government. What we can hear, see, and learn is just the tip of the iceberg. Discrimination is one of the principal reasons for racial disparities in American society as well as on many continents over the world. It is fundamentally attributed to limited opportunities in numerous domains such as employment, healthcare, promotion, and the level of social welfare.