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Discuss the applications of each of following in biology today andinclude three examples of each with a brief description.DNA in forensic scienceDNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid contains genetic information of an individual and is unique (with the exception for identical twins). DNA fingerprint is therefore different for different individuals, a fact that is used in many application in forensic science.Examples:i.Investigators at crime scene collect items that could have been worn or touched by persons involved in crime. Blood, semen, saliva, urine, feces, teeth, hair, bone, tissues, cells, etc can be used to determine the DNA profile, that help them to narrow suspects.ii.DNA rape kits enable the collection of biological material in cases of sexual assault or rape. The kit is used by forensic experts to collect samples from body of the victim such as semen, body fluids, tissue samples such as skin or hair. Samples are collectedfrom the body of the victim or from non-living things such as undergarments or sheets. The collected sample is analyzed by forensic technician and sent to the laboratory for full DNA analysis. The results are used by law enforcement officers orlegal entity to bring the assailant to justice.iii.DNA paternity testing makes use of DNA profiling (i.e. genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether the two individuals are the biological parent and child. The currenttechniques for paternity testing are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction
fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Paternity testing is used to determine the biological father and maternity testing is used to determine the mother of the individual or child, the latter makes use of mitochondrial DNA, as this is comes only from the mother. For a male child, comparison of Y chromosome is used as this is passed directly from father to son.Population evolution and microbial lifePopulation evolution in microorganisms happens faster than for larger species. The microbial strain’s huge population size combined with short generation time mean that natural selection acts quickly.Examples: i.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is genetically different from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus and is resistant to several widely used antibiotics.ii.The Gonorrhea bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea underwent series of mutations to develop mutant strains that show high resistance to penicillin.iii.The evolution of mutant strains of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) that are resistant to antiretroviral agents is a major cause of failure of many antiretroviral therapies to counter the HIV virus.Biological diversity evolutionBiological diversity refers to the variety and variability of plants, animals and microorganism from all sources including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and
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