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Biology Assignment on DNA

Added on - 16 Sep 2019

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Discuss the applications of each of following in biology today andinclude three examples ofeach with a brief description.DNA in forensic scienceDNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid contains genetic information of an individual and isunique (with the exception for identical twins). DNA fingerprint is therefore different fordifferent individuals, a fact that is used in many application in forensic science.Examples:i.Investigators at crime scene collect items that could have been worn or touched bypersons involved in crime. Blood, semen, saliva, urine, feces, teeth, hair, bone,tissues, cells, etc can be used to determine the DNA profile, that help them to narrowsuspects.ii.DNA rape kits enable the collection of biological material in cases of sexual assaultor rape. The kit is used by forensic experts to collect samples from body of the victimsuch as semen, body fluids, tissue samples such as skin or hair. Samples are collectedfrom the body of the victim or from non-living things such as undergarments orsheets. The collected sample is analyzed by forensic technician and sent to thelaboratory for full DNA analysis. The results are used by law enforcement officers orlegal entity to bring the assailant to justice.iii.DNA paternity testing makes use of DNA profiling (i.e. genetic fingerprinting) todetermine whether the two individuals are the biological parent and child. The currenttechniques for paternity testing are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction
fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Paternity testing is used to determine thebiological father and maternity testing is used to determine the mother of theindividual or child, the latter makes use of mitochondrial DNA, as this is comes onlyfrom the mother. For a male child, comparison of Y chromosome is used as this ispassed directly from father to son.Population evolution and microbial lifePopulation evolution in microorganisms happens faster than for larger species. Themicrobial strain’s huge population size combined with short generation time mean that naturalselection acts quickly.Examples:i.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is genetically different fromother strains of Staphylococcus aureus and is resistant to several widely usedantibiotics.ii.The Gonorrhea bacteriumNeisseria gonorrheaunderwent series of mutations todevelop mutant strains that show high resistance to penicillin.iii.The evolution of mutant strains of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) that areresistant to antiretroviral agents is a major cause of failure of many antiretroviraltherapies to counter the HIV virus.Biological diversity evolutionBiological diversity refers to the variety and variability of plants, animals andmicroorganism from all sources including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and
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