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PUB 605 Public Program Analysis And Evaluation

Added on - 18 Sep 2021

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Discussion 1 Response-pub 605
This is a class discussion. Please respond to Tim by reading his response Question
a) Validity is an important aspect of evaluation as the validity of the evaluation
contributes to the credibility of the evaluation and the results rendered from it. Working
through The Pyramid of Strength as we work through our various levels of validity
including Measurement Validity, Measurement Reliability, Internal Validity, External
Validity, Statistical Conclusion Validity and Clear Reporting on Choices we see that
measurement validity builds a strong base when it comes to being able to produce a clear
reporting of choices. As identified in the Pyramid of Strength when you work your way
up through the different levels of validity to the top of the pyramid your credibility
improves. Validity improves credibility in the results of the evaluation which is very
important. “In the end, even careful planning and reasoned decision making about both
measurement and design will not ensure that all evaluations will produce perfectly
credible results. There are a variety of pitfalls that frequently constrain evaluation
findings, as described in Chapter Twenty-Three. But clarity in reporting findings and
open discussion about methodological decisions and any obstacles encountered during
data collection will bolster confidence in findings.” (Wholey, 2015) As the saying goes
‘failing to plan is planning to fail’. While taking the proper measures to ensure validity is
key there still are potential down sides to any evaluation findings but at least the data
obtained through validity can increase the confidence in the results.
b) Internal validity as defined is the ability to determine whether a program or
intervention has produced an outcome and to also figure out the effect of said outcome.
Internal validity essentially is the relationship between the program and the observed
effects. An example of internal validity would be evaluating if a pay raise is directly
related to someone working more effectively. External Validity is the generalizability of
the results. Generalizability is when the findings can be attributed to something outside
the realm of what is being studied. Relating to the previous example external validity
would assess if the pay raise and possibly increased working effectiveness of an
employee affected factors outside of the evaluation such as the persons the position
serves. Finally, statistical conclusion validity uses statistically significant findings to
relate to the samples used in the evaluation. Going back to the example of pay raises a
statistical conclusion validity may be if repeated pay raises led to the continued
effectiveness of an employee’s work.
References:
Wholey, J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (2015). Handbook of Practical Program
Evaluation 4thEdition. San Francisco, USA. Jossey-Bass/Wiley Imprint
Good post!
By testing internal validity of an argument, we would like to find out its
applicability in terms of the independent and dependent variables identified. ie is
there a correlation in the variables for example it would be invalid to test teachers’
qualifications and basket-ball enrollment in an area (Dwork, Feldman,Hardt,
Pitassi, Reingold, & Roth, 2015)
External validity seeks to find out whether the argument is logical in that are there
any other external factors which are common in all segments of a behavior or
population. For example whether the behavior between rural and urban
populations is the same. On the other hand statistical conclusion validity will
evaluate the validity of the entire model and the conclusions from the research for
instance are we saying that increased school enrollment rates lead to higher
incomes? (Nuzzo, 2014)
References
Dwork, C., Feldman, V., Hardt, M., Pitassi, T., Reingold, O., & Roth, A. L. (2015,
June). Preserving statistical validity in adaptive data analysis. InProceedings of the
forty-seventh annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing(pp. 117-126). ACM.
Nuzzo, R. (2014). Statistical errors: P values, the'gold standard'of statistical validity,
are not as reliable as many scientists assume.Nature,506(7487), 150-153.
2. What is meant by "internal validity”, "external validity”, and "statistical
conclusion validity” as they relate toprogram evaluation? Please provide a public
administration example to illustrate your point...
Construct validity—whether operational variables adequately represent theoretical
constructs.
External validity—whether causal relationships can be generalized to different
measures, persons, settings, and times.
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