Double burden of malnutrition

Added on -2020-02-24

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The double burden of nutrition can be defined as the characteristics of a country where
there is a co-existence of under nutrition along with the disorders of overweight and obesity or
also other diet-related non communicable diseases not only in the personal level within
individuals but also among households, population and across he life courses (Ramachandran,
2016).. It has been found from a statistical analysis conducted by WHO (World Health
Organization) that in the year 2014, approximately 1.9 million adults were found above the age
of 18 an older who were overweight. At the same time, it was also found that 462 million people
were found underweight. . Again, 600 million people were found to be obese. It has been found
that poor nutrition continues to cause death in children out of which half the population of
children are under the age of 5. Low and middle income countries are facing such these
consequences for about 30% faster than the high income countries and therefore, it has become
one of the primary concerns of the nations about how to handle the condition strategically to
reduce the double burden of malnutrition and give a proper quality life (Shankar et al., 2017).
Etiology and epidemiology
India is one of the south east countries which are facing the consequences of double
burden of malnutrition in spite of a huge number of initiative been taken at a national level as
well as an international level. However, there is a requirement to discuss the entire scenario that
had contributed to the occurrence of such a situation in India. After the independence of India,
policy makers and politicians have identified the importance of India as a developing country to
recognize the importance of planned growth as well as economy emphasis on the on human
resource development (Kosaka & Umezaki, 2017). However India has not yet been successful in
overcoming the problems of poverty, communicable diseases as well as under nutrition. Besides,
it is also facing additional challenges which remain related to the affluence of industrialization,
urbanization an economic betterment. Last two decades have seen the rate of obesity and
overweight to increase along with prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular issues in the urban
areas (Mastorci et al., 2017). These disorders vary between urban and rural areas as well as in the
different states and socio-economic strata. Case fatality rates are reported to be higher in the poor
as well as rural population mainly because of the poor health care and delayed diagnosis and
treatment or disorders in such classes.
The population of India has been seen to increase from 934 million in the year 1996 to
that of 1264 million in 2016 although there has been no effective strategies to tackle the
population increase effectively. This is leading to failure of the strategies as the strategies are not
being able to provide intervention at the similar case of exponential increase in population.
Moreover, the technological advantage and increases access to healthcare have caused reduction
in crude birth rate from 24.10 to 21.41. Crude death rate from 8.99 to 7.48 as well as natural
growth rate from 1.51 to 1.39 percent, infant mortality rate from 63 to 38 per 1000 live birth for
males and 64 to 39 for females. All these had resulted in steady growth of population but
managing resources to provide food, education and helter to these increase number of population
had not been conducted properly which had contributed to poor quality living, lack of access to
quality food, proper education for maintaining lifestyles and maintain a steady health and well
being (Bohman, 2015). Moreover population is also growing because the present generation has
the highest number of the reproductive age groups, high fertility due to lack of contraception.
Due to the vast increase in population number, government is facing he issues to tackle the
situation as financial development of the nation though developing steadily but is not sufficient
for providing good food and lifestyle resources to this huge population increase. As a result
while the urban areas are getting cases of obesity and the rural areas are facing underweight
issues. Lack of financial power in rural areas leads to compromised women health and
sequentially to their babies, that result in compromised health and poor nutritional status.
Moreover lack of education, developing healthcare services (incapable for treating huge number
of patients) have also resulted in poor condition of rural areas. All these lead to child mortality
and even though they survive, they carry on the trend in a generation wise manner affecting the
health of the nation.
Determinants in this scenario
Statistical analysis and researches conducted in India by eminent researchers have helped
us to look deeper in the issue and has helped in pointing out some of the main determinants that
had resulted in the present condition. India has been facing huge number of deaths in the under
five children cohort. The main cause of malnutrition as well as death in the children has been
contributed to three important reasons (Thow et al., 2016). The intergenerational perpetuation of
malnutrition is first because often underweight pregnant women increases the likelihood of
giving birth to low weight babies which in turn becomes a strong predictor of the underweight in
infancy as well as in early childhood. Secondly, malnutrition in the different lactating mothers
raises the incidence of the children receiving reduce micro-nutrient consumption during feeding
on breast milk. This again affects infant growth. The third reason is that malnourished women
are always sick and weaker and therefore they are less able to care for their children, effectively.
These children often grow up on minimum nutrients which result them in stunted growth,
wasting and poor quality lives. The low socioeconomic people also cannot afford privatized
healthcare due to its high financial demands and the governmental hospitals remain overcrowded

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