DYSLEXIAABSTRACT:Dyslexia is a prominent yet an old disorder which was recorded and researched in late 1800's. It is defined as an inexplicable deficiency in reading and writing, which was once referred to as congenital word blindness (Hinshelwood, 1900) or strephosymbolia (Orton, 1928) but now referred to as developmental dyslexia. Several factors contribute to the onset of dyslexia both at an early or a later stage. These factors may be hereditary like DCDC2 gene, READ1 or may be arising from linked environmental factors like trauma, injury, etc. There are several sign and symptoms which altogether contribute to dyslexia. The level of dyslexia affecting child or individual can be reduced with proper training and medication. In this report, genetic factors and variations leading to dyslexia have been discussed. Various sign and symptoms are being evaluated which signifies the extent of dyslexia and the type of dyslexia as they employ a different approach to combat them. However, the findings clearly state a fine difference between intelligence and learning disorder and research show lack of data and investigation methods for the treatment and diagnostics of this disorder. Page | 2
DYSLEXIAINTRODUCTION:Dyslexia is adapted from a Greek word that corresponds to “Difficulty with words”. Dyslexia is a disorder where a child is unable to code and decode text, speech in a normal manner. It is sometimes also referred to as reading impairment (Vellutino, 1979). Statistically, nearly 10% of world’s population is affected by dyslexia (Peterson, 2012). The extent of the effect of dyslexia varies from individual to individual. It is not limited to children but can also be experienced at adulthood contributed to brain injury or stroke and dementia. It contributes difficulties at various levels like impaired reading and writing skills, slow rate for the spell of words. There is no correlation of dyslexia with the IQ of an individual as the entire disorder is involuntary in nature.Dyslexia is being contributed and caused by both genetic linkage, brain anatomy, and environmental factors. It is also researched that a child who has dyslexia is also prone to more immunological disorders. Dyslexia also has different variants as they are categorized by the extent and type to which they affect an individual. Local dyslexia associations can be contacted for assistance. Briefly to minimize dyslexia, several strategies are followed viz. allocating a zone that is noise free so that activities like reading, writing and comprehension studies can take place effectively, use of audio equipment’s to dictate the content of a book, use of screens and projectors for visualization, encouraging child and boosting the moral by neglecting minor grammatical mistakes associated with the use of scientific words. Developmental phases of Dyslexia (Snowling, 2008):-S.No.Developmental PhaseSign and symptoms of Dyslexia1.Pre-school (around Two and half yr)Slow rate of speechProblem in achieving milestones like crawling, walking due to short term memoryPage | 3
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