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Dyslexia Specialists in Higher EducationIntroductionShaywitz (2001) said that dyslexia is been characterized by an unexpected troubles inreading with children and adults who are lack with intelligence, motivation, andschooling necessary for accurate and fluent reading. According to NHS UK dyslexiahas a lifelong problem that can be presented as a challenge on a daily basis and as wellsupports are available to improve reading and writing skills and help those with theproblemto be successfulat schooland work. These types of disabilities can affectuniversity students, including transition into higher education and transition out into theworkplace so the Association of Dyslexia Specialists have asked for help to focus onnetwork for dyslexia specialists in higher education where the concerns are different tothe wider educational environment where other groups (e.g. BDA or PATOSS) providesupport. They have asked for review of the theory for the type of dyslexia and as well ofsuggestion as to how it approached the issue. It's estimated that up to 1 in every 10 to20 people in the UK has some degree of dyslexia. The statistic highlight that issue ofdyslexia specialists in higher education has suggeststhat there is a need to understandwhy dyslexia occurs and how to overcome it.Theoretical explanation of dyslexiaWhen it comes to reading, you've probably heard of phonological awareness. Accordingto Gillon (2004),phonological awareness is a needed skill that motivates a child's abilityto learn to read and spell. However, the understanding of phonological is not only hasclear clinical consequences, but also has implications for the current debate on readingprocessing. The phonological module of dyslexia argues that dyslexics have theweakness reading ability because they have a deficit in phonological processing.According to this model, dyslexics have a difficult time with written language becausethey have an impaired ability to analyze written words into phonemes, thus preventingword identification(HealthyPlace, 2016).Thus; dyslexics have intact memory andcomprehension language processes that are not activated because the activation after
a word has been identified through phonological processing. In 1980 Bradley andBryant has conducted a study on a group of children that worked on grouping wordsaccording to their sounds (phonological training), while another group worked ongrouping words according to their meaning (holistic training). The reading ability forchildren in the phonological training group improved greatly, while the reading ability forchildren in the holistic training group only improved marginally. This study demonstratesthat phonological training, above all other language training, improves readingskills(Shaywitz and Shaywitz, 1999)Figure: Gathering meaning about visual and sound connections( Dyslexic Organization2016)
The most obvious way to challenge the specificity of the phonological deficit is toassume that it is secondary to a more basic auditory deficit. Rapid Naming (RAN) testsyour ability to connect visual and verbal information by giving the appropriate names tocommon objects, colors, letters, and digits.Support for this theory arises from evidencethat dyslexics show poor performance on a number of auditory tasks, includingfrequency discrimination (Mcanally and Stein, 1996) and temporal order judgment(Tallal, 1980).RAN plays in testing reading ability are contentious. Research supportsthe use of RAN as a measure of phonological processing, as a measure oforthographicprocessingand integration, and as a measure of reading ability. It has been suggestedthat RAN may link to reading because reading depends on object-naming circuits in theleftcerebral hemispherethat are recruited in reading to underpin word-recognitionabilities (Lervåg and Hulme, 2009).Dyslexia as a visual processing disorder is the most traditional way of viewing readingdifficulties. This theory believes dyslexia to be the result of a visual impairment thatmakes it difficult for the dyslexic to process information from the letters and words of awritten text.The visual theory also included phonological deficit which highlights a visualcontribution to reading complications for those who hasdyslexic(Stein, 1997).It issuggested that, at the biological level etiology of visual dysfunction which was related tothe division of visual system into two different pathways with distinctive roles andproperties(Stein, 1997).According toStein (1997)two pathways are magnocellular andparvocellular. According to Hari (2001) magnocellular pathway is selectively interruptedin various dyslexic individuals. This leads to deficiencies in visual processing and thruthe posterior parietal cortex, to abnormal binocular control and visual partial attention(Hari, 2001).The Proof for magnocellular dysfunction comes from anatomical studiesshowing abnormalities of the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculatenucleus(Livingstone et al., 1991)psychophysical studies showing decreased sensitivityin the magnocellular range, i.e. low spatial frequencies and high temporal frequencies,in dyslexics(Lovegrove et al., 1980).