EE0722 Law for the Built Environment Coursework Assignment

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EE0722-LawfortheBuiltEnvironmentCourseworkAssignmentProfessionalAdviceforNDLIssues1,2and3WordCount-2886WordsliPage
EE0722-LawfortheBuiltEnvironment1.0lntroduct·ionNorthumbriaDevelopmentslimitedareadevelopmentcompanythatcurrentlyownaportionoflandinNewcastle1inwhichheyhavedevisedathreephaseschemeofStudentaccommodationblocks.Phase1isundercontractwithOlipperPicasthemain contractorandisnearingcompletionandworkhasy·ettocommenceonphases2and3.NDlhaveencounteredanumberofissueswiththedeve!lopmentandhaverequestedprofessionaladvice.2.0DefectiveWorkIssue1.2.1IssueIntroductionNDlhavestatedthatClipperPichaveinstalledwindowsthatarenottothecorrectspecificationasoudinedinthecontractdocuments.ItcoutdbeseenthatClipperPicareatfaultforhisissueas,'whereanypartyfailswithoutlawfulexcusetoperfonnfullyandexactly.acontractualobligation,thatpartyisguiltyofabreachofcontracr(Hughes,Champion,andMurdoch,2015p.157)thusliableunderthe law ofcontract.ClipperPichaveinstalledwhitewindowframesinsteadofblackframeswhichisnotinaccordancewiththecontractspecificationthereforethisworkcan'bedeemeddefective'(RIGS2013p.3).RICSalsostateintheirguidancenote'If,however;high qualityredcfaytileshavebeenusedwheretheemployerspecifiedbrowntiles,thenthatinlawwillbe·abreachofcontract,andtheworkmaybedeemeddefective.'(RJCS2013p.32.2MajorFacts/IssuesNDLandClipperPicarepartiestoabuildingcontractdescribedas'anagreementmadebetweentwoormorepersonswhichisbindinginlaw,andiscapabfeofbeingenforcedby thosepersonsincourtorothertribunals'(Stone,·p.9).Acontractwilloftencontainanagreementofan·offerandanacceptance.IfeitherpaiiybreachestheprovisionsofthecontractforinstancenotinstallingthespecifiedwindoiNS,thenthatpartycouldbeliableunderthelawofcontract.Inconstructioncontractscasesthatreachlitigation'willusuallybeheardintheTechnologyandConstructionCourt(TCC)'(Wevi/1,2013p.8)·.TheTechnologyandConstructionCourtGuideisakeyareaoflegislatio'thatovides'straightforward,practicalguidanceontheconductoflifigation intheCC'{HMCourts&TribunalsService,2015).Duetothe contractbeingforasaleof gooduilding,additionaltermsarecoveredbytheSaleofGoodsAct1979.2.3RelevantlegislationICaselawTheHousingGrantsandConstructionRegenerationAct1996appliestoallbuildingcontracts.TheHGCRA'laysdowncertainrulesapplicab.leonlytoconstructioncontracts'(Hughes,Champion,andMurdoch,2015p.133).Constructioncontra.ctsoften containclausesthatstate'onlyworkexecutedinaccordancewiththecontractwillentitlethecontractortoreceivepayment'.(Davison,Mullen,andDavison,2008p.275).UndertheHGCRA'section108providesanypartywiththerighttoreferadisputeatany timetoadjudicationensuringthatallconstructioncontractsprovideprovisionsforadjudication.21Page
EE0722-LawfortheBuiltEnvironmentUndertheconstructioncontract'theemployerdoesnothavetopaythepartofthecontractsumthatcomprisestheamountincludedforworl<thatisidentifiedasbeingdefective.Inmostinstancesthiswillbe atemporarymeasurependingreplacementofthedefectiveworkbythecontractor.'(Davison,Mullen,andDavison,2008p275).Thisoutcomewouldbethemostpracticalforbothsidesasthecontractorisinbreachofcontractlaw.ThisisbackedupbythelegislationintheSaleofgoodsact,1979assection14statesthatall'goodssuppliedunderthecontractareofsatisfactoryquality'whichincludesthe'appearanceandfinish'ofthesegoods.Underthecontract thecontractor'isobligedtomakegoodanydefectswhichappearinthedefects rectificationperiod'(Knowles2012p309).Thedefectsrectificationperiodbeginsatpracticalcompletionand canlastusuallyaminimumofsixmonths.ThecaseofHWNeville(Sunblest)LtdvWilliamPressandSonltd[1981]establishedhatanemployerisentitledtoclaimfromacontractorwhoneglectsorrefusestomakegooddefectsin theworkthecostarisingfromhavingothersundertaketheWJri<'(Knov.4es2012p324).InthecaseRuxleyElectronicsandConstructionLtdv.Forsyth[1995]thecontractorinstalledaswimmingpoolthatwas450mmshallowerthanspecified.TheHouseofLordsrefusedthatthecontractorshouldre-buildthepoolandclaimedtheclientstruelossasbeing'lossofpleasureandamenity,andawarded£2500asdamages'(Hughes,Champion,andMurdoch,2015p.333)2.4ApplicationoftheprinciplestotheIssueUnderthecontractNDLdonothavepaythecontractorforthedefectivewindowframesuntiltheissuehasbeenrectifiedoranagreementhasformed.ClipperPicarenotentitledtopaymentasthewindowframesarenottothespecificationinthecontractdocuments.IfClipperPicrefusetomakegoodthewindowframesthenNDLwouldbeinasituationwheretheycouldemployanothercontractortocompletetheworksatthecostofClipperPicasintheSunblestcase.ItmustbenotedhoweverthatintheRux/eycasetheclientwasonly entitledtotheirtruelosshoweverthiscouldbe·hardtoevaluateasitisnottrulyclearwhatNDL'stnuelosswouldbeinthisissue.2.5ConclusionInsummaryitwouldbeinthebestinterestsforNDLtonegotiatewithClipperPictotryandresolvetheissue.IftheissuecannotberesolvedthenitwouldbeadvisableforNDLtotakethedisputetoadjudicationasoutlinedinthecontract.AtadjudicationitcouldbeexpectedthatClippereitherrectifythedefectiveworkorpayforNDLtoemployanothercontractortoreplacethewindowframes.ItwouldbeunlikelysuchanissuewouldrequirelitigationduetothehighcostsandthefactthatClipperPichavemadetheerror.ItcouldbeconcludedthatNDLacceptadamagespaymentfromClipperPictopreventthecasegoingtocourt.3IPage
EE0722-LawfortheBuiltEnvironment3.0OversailingTowerCrane-Issue53.1IssueIntroductionNDLhaveinfonnedusthataneighbourtothesitecurrentlyunderdevelopmentiscomplainingaboutthejibofthetowercranebeingswungoverhissite.NDLmustbeinfonnedthatifthisistruethentheyalongwiththecontractorwouldbeliableunderthelaw ofTortfortrespasstolandwhich'isatortconcernedwiththepreventionofinterferencewiththepossessionofland.'(FinchandFafinski,2013p155).AnothertortthatNDLcouldbeliableunderisprivatenuisance.DuetotheneighbourcurrentlyopposingplanningpositionitwouldbeadvisedthatNDLresolvetheissueorprepareaviabledefence.3.2MajorIssuesIFactsTrespassoccurswhen'theclaimantcanshowadirectandunjustifiableinterferencewiththeclaimanrspossessionof/and'(GilikerandBeckwith,2011).Landisdefinedinthelaw andpropertyact1925as'landofanytenure,andminesandminerals...buildingsorpartsofbuildingsandothercorporealhereditaments;also...incorporealhereditamentsandan easementrightprivilegeorbenefitinoverorderivedfromland'.Itisimportanttohighlightthatalandownerineffectowns theairspace,withinlimits,abovetheirlandandabreachofthisspaceisineffecttrespass.Aprivatenuisanceis'theunreasonableuseofmanofhis landtothedetrimentofhisneighbour'Millerv.Jackson{1977]andthetrespassofatowercranecanconstituteaprivatenuisanceifdamages canbeproved.Itmustalsobenotedthattheonlypersonprotectedundertortistheownerorleaseholderoftheland.Thethreewaysinwhichadefendantcantrespassuponaclaimantslandareifthedefendant hasalicence/consent,thetrespassisanecessityorifthedefendantwaslegallyauthorisedtotrespass.3.3RelevantLegislationICaseLawThelimits oftrespassoverairspacecanbedetenninedby thecaseAnchorBrewhouseDevelopmentsLtdvBerkeleyHouse(DocklandsDevelopments)Ltd{1987]whereaninjunctionwasgrantedtostopthedeveloper'scranesandthecaseBernsteinv.Skyviews&GeneralLTO[1978]wherethedefendantswerenotliablefor takingoverheadphotographsusingaplanemanyhundredsof metersaboveground.TheCivilaviationact1982highlightsthattrespassandnuisancedoesnotoccur'ataheightabovethegroundwhich,havingregardtowind,weatherandallthecircumstancesofthecaseisreasonable'therefore itcouldbeseenthatalltrespassesbelowthislleightareinbreachoftort-1'l'Itisimportanttomentionthatthecontractor mustnotbeheldoransom'(Phoenix,2009)bythelandownerasthecaseWoollertonandWilsonvRichardCostain[1970]wheretheclaimantwasofferedasignificantsumforalicencetooversailwithacranebutrefusedthelicence.Theclaimanthadbeengrantedaninjunctionwherethedefendanthadtoceaseusingthecranebutthiswassuspendeduntilthedefendants'workswerecompleteduetotheclaimant'prejudicinghisrightstoaninjunction'(Phoenix,2009)bynotacceptingthesumofmoneyofferedforthelicence.41Page
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