Environmental Science Assignment

Added on - Nov 2020

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ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE
TABLE OF CONTENTSTASK 1............................................................................................................................................1Anatomical structure of reptiles, fish, birds and insects............................................................1Physiological and anatomical functions according to groups and habitat.................................4Comparison between species in relation with survival..............................................................5Adaptive strategies and characteristics of chordates..................................................................6Evolution theory related to adaptive strategies..........................................................................6Morphological processes............................................................................................................7Evolutionary theory related to morphological changes.............................................................8TASK 2...........................................................................................................................................9Factors affecting evolutionary processes....................................................................................9Modern evolutionary theory.......................................................................................................9REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................11
TASK 1Anatomical structure of reptiles, fish, birds and insectsThe anatomy of various species is discussed as below:Fish:The fish anatomy depends upon the water which is the habitat of this specie. These coldblooded species are characterised by fins. The gills are used for breathing while the fins helpthem to perform the functions related to motion and balance. The anal and dorsal fins are criticalas they help fishes to avoid rolling on either side. In most of the fishes a special mucus coveringis surrounded around body. This covering prevents infection (Gullan and Cranston, 2014).The freshwater fishes such as Tench and Sea Lamprey also possess rigid spine which isessential for the defence purpose. The gap between density of air and water is managed by gillsso that fishes can easily breathe inside water. The anatomical structure of fish also consist ofsensory organ called lateral line which senses the movement and water pressure. The swimbladder of the fish is filled with gas and is essential for sustaining the neutral buoyancy to thisspecie.(Source:Fish Anatomy: Internal & External Anatomy of a Fish, 2018)1Illustration2: Internal anatomy of fishIllustration1: External anatomy of fish
Insects:The small size and ability to fly allow insects to accompany more effective disguise ascompare to their predators. These species have effectively survived in temperature variation,different weather conditions and climate. The insects do not have bones and their skeletal systemconsist of only exoskeleton (Williams, 2018). The outer skin layer of the insect is calledintegument. The exoskeleton regulate size, water loss along with the protection functionality.Some species such as Dynastes Hercules can change their colour thus their colourpigment is controllable by the specie. The locomotive action is performed by pair of legs.However, in species like honey bee the adaptions of legs are identified in the form of hair rows.The cuticle covers two epidermis layers which is known as wings. Along with the flight actionthe wings also carry blood vessels. In all insects the dorsal surface are provided with sensoryorgans called antennae. The movement function is accomplished by the muscles while digestivesystem and nervous system plays their role for metabolism and controlling (Bainbridge, 2018).(Source:Anatomy of an insect, 2015)2Illustration3: Insect anatomy
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