Environmental Science Assignment Solution

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Environmental Science
Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................1TASK 1............................................................................................................................................1Theories related to microevolution, natural selection, adaptation, gene flow, isolation andhybridisation...........................................................................................................................1Evaluation of environmental strategies and management processes at national and globallevels to secure species survival.............................................................................................3Identification of species and description of bryophytes.........................................................5Importance of simple green plants to human survival............................................................5Evaluation of the ecological relevance of simple green plants..............................................6Description of significant adaptation for terrestrial plants.....................................................7Evaluation of the relevance of seed survival environmental and for human survival andinclusion of detailed explanation different strategies.............................................................8TASK 2............................................................................................................................................9Identify species of bacteria and viruses and description of detailed structure and function. .9CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................10REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................11
INTRODUCTIONStudy of plants can be known as Botany which was originated in the form of herbalismwhere Botanists (Plant Scientists) used to use plants for the purpose of building up medicines. Inmodern time, botany has become a broader subject combination of both science and technology(Brown and Prescott, 2014). From ancient centuries, evolution process has showed heavy geneticvariations among plants. Therefore, this botanical evolutionary process can be considered as animportant element to study and practise deeply.Present project will show number of theories related to microevolution, natural selection,gene flow and other models which will help in understanding the whole concept of Botany.Assignment will also include environmental strategies and management process at bothinternational and national level in order to keep species survival secure. Apart from this,assessment will put light on identification of species, bryophytes and significance of green plantsover survival of human beings etc. Report will consider importance of adaptation for terrestrialplants. Lastly, determination of species of bacteria/viruses and their structure along with functionwhich will help in understanding botanical evolution in depth.TASK 1Theories related to microevolution, natural selection, adaptation, gene flow, isolation andhybridisationMicroevolutionis being defined as alterations in gene frequencies that happens in speciesover time. Major changes happens due to four different processes and these are: Mutation, GeneFlow, genetic drift and natural selection (Paul, 2014). Changes which takes place carries in shortperiod of time as compared tomacroevolutionbecause alterations which occurs in this needslong time. Here are discussed some theories associated with numerous elements of Botany thatcan assist in understand their basic concepts:Adaptive theory:Survival of the fittest is being considered as the major aim offormulating this theory. Charles Darwin proposed this theory because he accepted the fact thatspecies whether it belongs to animals or plants changes because of evolutionary process. Thereare three types of alterations are being seen and these are: habitat tracking, changes in geneticsand co – adaptations etc.
Theory of Inheritance:The general theory of inheritance can be described through theBoveri and Sutton's chromosome theory, it can be considered as the fundamental unifying theoryof genetics that represents the chromosomes as the carries of genetic material. The fundamentallaw of inheritance is identified by the Gregor Mendel by his work on pea plants. He analysed thatthe genes come in pairs and are inherited as distinct units, one from each parent.Genes located on various chromosomes will be inherited separately of each other. In thisresearch of genetics,Mendel analysed that when peas with more than one trait were crossed, thenthe new progeny did not always match with characteristics of parents. However, this is becausedifferent traits are inherited independently which is known as a principle of independentassortment.Darwin's Theory of Evolution (Natural Selection) :Charles Darwin a British naturalist,propounded the theory of evolution by natural selection. Survival is the key word on which thistheory is based. Model has demonstrated some key points that are given below:More species (Plants) are formed in every generation which may survive in today'scomplex environment.Phenotypic variation stays among plant species considering heritability (Li and Heap,2014).Only the species of plants will survive that have effective heritable traits.New species will generate/form only when reproductive isolating system occurs.As per above mentioned theory, several concepts like gene flow, hybridisation andisolation can be included which are explained below -Gene flow :This can also be known as migration. Transferring of genes from one placeto another can be considered as gene flow in evolutionary process of plants. Gene flow can beunderstood with the help of diagram.
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