Epidemiology Assignment on Tuberculosis

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: EPIDEMIOLOGYEPIDEMIOLOGYName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note:
1EPIDEMIOLOGYContentsAnswer 1:...................................................................................................................................2Answer 2:...................................................................................................................................32.1 Signs and symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB):.....................................................................32.2 Disease Burden of Tuberculosis:.....................................................................................4Answer 3:...................................................................................................................................53.1 Contact Tracing-...............................................................................................................53.2 Steps of contact tracing:...................................................................................................5Answer 4:...................................................................................................................................84.1 General Information on TB:.............................................................................................84.2 Infectiousness and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis:............................................................94.3 High Risk groups:..........................................................................................................104.4 Procedures for Household contacts:...............................................................................104.5 Rest period and chances of re infection:........................................................................11Answer 5:.................................................................................................................................11Guidelines for the control of Tuberculosis in Northern Territory and Victoria:..................11References:...............................................................................................................................13
2EPIDEMIOLOGYAnswer 1:A Notifiable disease can be any disease that has a legal obligation to be reported tothe government/ public health authorities, when it is diagnosed since the disease can bepotentially harmful to health (Gibnet et al., 2016). It is also known as “reportable disease”.Collected reports of this disease can allow its monitoring, and provide an early warning if anoutbreak is imminent. Several governments have laws being enacted and enforced thatstipulates reporting of diseases in both Humans and Animals (or livestocks). Some of thenotifiable diseases (caused by bacteria and viruses) in Australia are: Anthrax, Botulism,Brucellosis, Cholera, Diphtheria, Leprosy, Leptospirosis, Pertussis, Plague, Salmonellosis,Shigellosis, Syphillis, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever, AIDS, Arbovirus infections,Hepatitis, (A-E), HIV, Influenza, Measles, Poliomyelitis, Rubella, Small Pox and YellowFever. Other disease includes: Amoebic Dysentery, Cancer, Dysentr, Malaria, Giardiasis andTrichinosis, to name a few (Gibney et al., 2017).List of Australian websites that acts as repositories for information related to Notifiabledisease:1.Department of Health, Australia (http://www.health.gov.au/casedefinitions)2.Department of Agriculture, Australia (http://www.agriculture.gov.au/pests-diseases-weeds/animal/notifiable)3.Database of notificable diseases, Australia (https://data.gov.au/dataset/national-notifiable-diseases-surveillance-system)4.Department of Health, Australia (http://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/Silver-book/STI-or-HIV-notification/Australian-national-notifiable-disease-case-definitions)
3EPIDEMIOLOGY5.GovernmentofSouthAustralia(http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/public+content/sa+health+internet/clinical+resources/health+notifications/notifiable+disease+reporting)6.Northern Territory Government (https://health.nt.gov.au/professionals/centre-for-disease-control/cdc-programs-and-units/notifiable-diseases)7.Federal Register of Legislation, Australian Government(https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2008L00800)8.Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Australia(https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/animal-industries/animal-health-and-diseases/notifiable)9.LivestockBiosecurityNetwork,Australia(http://www.lbn.org.au/farm-biosecurity/notifiable-diseases/)Answer 2:2.1 Signs and symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB):Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease which can be fatal if not treated properly (Fogel,2015). The bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) spreads via tine droplets released whilecoughing or sneezing, and affects the lungs. However tuberculosis infection can exist in aLatent or Active state. In theLatent stage, the bacteria remain in the body in an inactive andnon-contagious stage, and exhibit no symptoms. However, the latent bacterium can becomeactive in the body, causing the onset of symptoms (Getahun et al., 2015). In theActive stage,the bacterium is infective and can spread from person to person. The typical signs andsymptoms at this stage includes:Coughthat lasts for more than three weeks, discharge ofblood during cough,pain in the chestanddifficulty in breathing,weight loss,fatigue,fever,nocturnal sweats,chills and appetite loss. Symptoms of primary pulmonarytuberculosis includefeverordry cough, and are often temporary. People suffering from
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