Sociology Essay - Health and Social Welfare
Added on - 15 Apr 2020
Running head: SOCIOLOGYHealth and Social WelfareName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1SOCIOLOGYEssay 1The essay aims to focus on the welfare state policies. The essay aligns with the quote'the real disputes are not about whether welfare should exit, but about how much provisionthere should be, and how it should be done' by Paul Spicker, which means, that it does notmatter, whether welfare is being done or not, but depends on how much provision has beenallotted for an individual, depending upon the socio economic status (Spicker2013). Thisessay would further discuss regarding the changes incorporated and the political context ofthe welfare state policies. The essay will also provide an insight to the different health careperceptive as per the social strata.In 1984, historian Derek Freaser stated the British story briefly. At the time of thegreat depression in the year 1930, the U.K local and the state government and the privatecharities were concerned about the poor families asking for food, shelter and clothing. Hence,in the year 1935, the government took the responsibilities of the impoverished and thedeprived classes of people. The reforms remained for 60 years (Morel, Palierand Palme2012). In the year 1942 the Beveridge Report spelled out a social insurance system, takingeach and every citizen under the coverage, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Itpromised a concept of 'cradle to grave ' welfare state, till it dangled in 1946, before the Britishelectorate. In the year 1942 the Beveridge Report spelled out a social insurance system,taking each and every citizen under the coverage, regardless of the socioeconomic status(Beveridge,2014). It promised a concept of' cradle to grave ' welfare state, till it dangled in1946, before the British electorate. The report published by Beveridge report, contained thestrategies for providing help to those who are in real need. The report was termed as "the fivegiants". The key elements of the five giants related to the well fare of the people are 'want,Ignorance, disease, Squalor and idleness' (Beveridge,2014). The report was like a push to thegovernment to indulge in reforms for the impoverished class of people. In accordance with
2SOCIOLOGYthe collectivist concept, the cradle to grave concept focuses mainly on the provision ofminimal levels of health care. It facilitated the dismantling of the British privileges and classsystem.As discussed earlier that the main aim of the state welfare is to improve the life styleof the population of the United Kingdom. The state welfare concept mainly focused onchildren, so that they are properly clothed, fed and is imparted with basic education (Renzoni2013). Some of the advantages of the State welfare are that it improved the access to thehealth care. The essential needs of the children are addressed properly, in case where parentsare incapable of taking up financial responsibility of the child. Some of the benefits that thewelfare states give are tax credit, housing benefits, child benefit, incapacity benefit, incomesupport, community care grant, child tax credit and more (Morel, Palierand Palme2012).Other benefit is constant attendance allowance, crisis loans, funeral payment. The empiricalevidences supported that taxes and the transfers would help to reduce the poverty at asignificant level, but some of the people might become dishonest at their point and can hidetheir economic status to come under the welfare scheme and get the welfare benefits. Someof the well fare programs might not sustain capability of supporting others in the long run.A significant number of disadvantages could be seen; such as there will be a massivemisuse of the tax payers money spent by the people having no wish to better themselves. Theyouths will not strive to get better jobs, or plan their career, if they are provided with all thenecessities from the beginning. They will not be encouraged to get enough money to supportthemselves. As stated by Starke et al.(2013), state well fare was set with good intentions tohelp the poor people to prevent starvation, misery and disease. But a large number of peoplejust tend to survive on welfare rather than to earn by working.
3SOCIOLOGYUntil 1800, the state or the government was not involved in the provision of socialwelfare (Forrest and Murie2014). The provisions were mainly supplied by the localchurches, private welfare organizations. The provisions were provided locally by the localrecipients. Most of the social work occurred locally or within small groups. According toStarke et al.(2013), the requirement of welfare support through benefit services and paymentscan be replaced by several alternatives. At first it has to be understood regarding the meaningof the benefits. The benefits provided by the welfare state were undervalued by many people.One of the major alternatives to the state welfare is the increasing role of the voluntarysectors (Renzoni2013). Community welfare can be suitable where the members can beresponsible for each other and care for each other. As stated byForrest and Murie (2014) thefriendly societies set up in German long before the welfare state policy, was much successfulin giving 'mutual aid' to the people who are working. This concept spread to the otherEuropean countries including Britain (Murray2016). A successful alternative such as mutualfunds meant putting money in a common fund for helping each other in times of need. Themutual aid was commissioned form one person to the other rather to a poor person from adistant bureaucrat. In such a case the well being of the welfare recipient have to remaindependant on this distant bureaucrat. There were provisions for fraternal societies, whichprovided insurance policies like accident and sickness benefits by (Forrest and Murie2014).The immigrants were also benefitted from the mutual aid organizations. The family membersthat are rich can serve the needs of the needy member. Several charitable trusts andphilanthropists are there that can address the needs of the poor (Murray2016).The welfare state had always been on the frontline of the political debate. As thesocieties have changed the welfare policies have also changed. Since 1997, the governmenthad cut the costs of the unemployment (Gelauff and Graafland2014). Work is promoted tothose who have capacities and security to those who cannot work. It was not until after the