Ethical and Non ethical Aspects - Case Study
Added on - 28 May 2020
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Running head: IT MANAGEMENT ISSUESResearcher Illegally Shares Millions of Science Papers Free Online to SpreadKnowledgeName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor’s Note:
1IT MANAGEMENT ISSUES“Researcher Illegally Shares Millions of Science Papers Free Online to SpreadKnowledge”Ethics is a specific branch of philosophy, which eventually includes thesystematization, defending and recommendation of relevant concepts of correct and incorrectconduct (Peters, 2015). Ethics helps in resolving each and every question of the morality ofhuman beings by simply defining the major concepts of correct or incorrect, crime or justice,good or bad and vice or virtue. There are three most important areas in ethics, namely metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics (Dewey, 2016). The meta ethics mainly deals withthe theory and the moral propositions. The truth-values are determined from meta ethics. Thenormative ethics deals with the practical means for the determination of the moral actioncourse. The third area of ethics is the applied ethics that mainly deals with the concern ofpermission of any particular person, working in any typical situation (Fromm, 2013). Thereare typically four classical theories of ethics, which include Utilitarianism theory, Deontologytheory, Virtue theory and Contract theory.The following essay outlines a brief discussion on a real time case study on aresearcher, who illegally shares millions of science papers, absolutely free online forspreading knowledge (Crane & Matten, 2016). This essay helps to understand the fourclassical theories of ethics for the above mentioned situation. The essay explains about theethical dilemma, the situation has within it. This essay even describes about the informationand communication technology.Case StudyA Russian researcher had made over 48 million articles of journal completely freeavailable in online for providing and spreading good knowledge to all people, who areaccessing Internet (MacDonald, 2018). She was claimed for providing free journal articles
2IT MANAGEMENT ISSUESillegally and when was questioned for this, she refused to shut down the site in spite ofreceiving a lawsuit and court injunction from Elsevier. Elsevier is one of the best publishersin the world. This site was basically created in the year 2011 by popular neuroscientistnamely, Alexandra Elbakyan (MacDonald, 2018). She was extremely frustrated upon the factthat she was unable to afford all the articles required for the research. As these articles wentviral, thousands of articles were downloaded everyday in the entire world. At the end of2015, the New York district court ordered to shut down the site forever. However, AlexandraElbakyan did not want to shut it and fought against the law. According to her, knowledgeshould be given to everyone absolutely free of cost. She claimed that no matter how muchless a person earns, he or she has the birth right to obtain knowledge (MacDonald, 2018).World’s leading universities like Cornell and Harvard have already admitted that thescientific journals or papers are extremely high in price and people with less income and lessfinancial support cannot afford them.Utilitarianism TheoryThe Utilitarianism theory is the first and the foremost theory of the four classicaltheories of ethics. The main factor of this theory is that it supports the best action, which caneventually maximize the utility of any particular situation (Durkheim, 2013). The mainadvantage of this theory is that it only allows the best activity of any situation and thus canbring excess utility. This particular theory can also be claimed as the perfect version of thetheory of consequentialism. This consequentialism theory states that all the consequences of aparticular action can be understood on the basis of correct or incorrect. The theory ofutilitarianism takes all the interest of every human being with equal distribution (Niebuhr,2013). In this particular case study, a researcher, namely, Alexandra Elbakyan has mademillions of scientific journals and articles available on the Internet, completely free of cost.