(PDF) Evaluation of HVS models

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ADVANCEDRESEARCHMETHODS
Table of ContentsIntroductory Comments:..................................................................................................................1Report Overview....................................................................................................................1Aim of the Report...................................................................................................................1Participant detail/setting.........................................................................................................1Brief Summary of Dataset......................................................................................................1Treatment...............................................................................................................................1Section 1...........................................................................................................................................2Descriptive/demographic information for participants..........................................................2Descriptive information for cigarettes smoked......................................................................2Summary.................................................................................................................................3Section 2...........................................................................................................................................3Brief summary of the Section.................................................................................................3Descriptive of VAS and HVS.................................................................................................3Levene’s test and summary (equality of variances)...............................................................5Section 3...........................................................................................................................................6Section introduction................................................................................................................6Descriptive information in table format.................................................................................7Commentary/summary of the findings using appropriate statistical information..................7Implications of findings..........................................................................................................8Section 4...........................................................................................................................................8Descriptive Statistics..............................................................................................................8Homogeneity Test of Variances.............................................................................................9Post-Hoc Test.......................................................................................................................12Section 5.........................................................................................................................................14Part 1.....................................................................................................................................14Part 2....................................................................................................................................14REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................15APPENDICES...............................................................................................................................16
Introductory Comments:Report OverviewThis report provides an analysis of a research undertaken by an alcohol support clinicwhere it the investigators attempted to determine the number of individuals who have alcholissues. The following report is mainly divided into five sections along with introductorycomments which is largely based upon the findings of the study using SPSS.Aim of the ReportThe main aim of the report is to analyse the data collected through the survey andformulate a report based on the findings. Thus, providing an in-depth view on how many peopleare addicted to alcohol and what are the factors which impact it.Participant detail/settingThe main setting of this particular research includes self-selected 116 participants thatinclude some University students.Brief Summary of DatasetThe Dataset includes information collected on numerous factors such as Demographic,Ratings on Visual Analogue Scales, Previous Drinking related illnesses, health value ratings and18 other items based upon the MHLC Guidelines. It is important to note that the VisualAnalogue Scales includes perceived risk, self-efficacy, subjective norms and intentions to stopdrinking as its essential components.TreatmentThe dataset has been utilised for transformation purposes as well as computation of newvariables. As far as the Transformation of Data is concerned, the report undertakes thebifurcation of 'age' variable which was subjected to open responses given by the participants. Theraw scores related to such a variable have been divided into three age groups viz. 18-21, 22-24and 25-40 years of age. Apart from this, new variables viz. MHLC19, MHLC20 and MHLC21which represent the three sub-scales of MHLC viz. “Internal, Check and Powerful Others”respectively. Based on these, internal reliability has been determined using Cronbach’s alphawhich comes to 0.672. Thus, indicating that the internal reliability and consistency of thesescales is quite high.1
Section 1Descriptive/demographic information for participantsThere are following demographic variables are defined in the report as ID that representsthe participant numbers, Gender that defines the sex of participants (Male/Female), Age thatdefines the age group of participants and accommodation type of participants as he/she lives athome alone, family home or student accommodation, Drinks that represents the alcoholic drinksconsumed per day. There are 116 participants opted to carried out the research. 57 respondentsare male and 59 respondents are female.StatisticsParticipantnumberMale or femaleYearsType of livingaccommodationReported numberof alcoholicdrinks per dayNValid116116116116116Missing00000Mean58.5000.5124.213.035.8707Median58.50001.0023.003.005.0000Mode1.00a12243.00Std. Deviation33.63034.5024.605.8283.78907Variance1131.000.25221.209.68614.357Minimum1.0001821.00a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shownFrom above descriptive statistics of demographics of individuals it has been identifiedthat there are total of 116 respondents who has average age of 24.21 and most of thoseindividuals are aged 22. This data helps in ascertaining that average chances of error in thisanalysis is less which are presented above as standard deviation (Bell, Bryman and Harley,2018).Descriptive information for cigarettes smokedIt is evaluated that the average of consuming alcohol is 24 years. All the respondents arecategorized as follows 38 respondents stay as student accommodations, 37 participants live withfamily home, 41 respondents live independently. Participants are categorized as specific ID withthe specific age groups as (18-21), (21-24) and (25-40).The descriptive analysis presented above also has statistical information of reportednumber of alcoholic drinks which are consumed by them per day. It has been analysed that an2
average number of drinks consumed by an individual is 5.87 and minimum number of drinksconsumed in a day is one. It is also observed that 3 drinks are consumed by most of theindividuals participated in this study.SummaryThe interesting fact found in the analysis is that on an average 5 drinks are consumed byparticipants and female participants consumes drinks more compared to male participants. Therelations between the participants is evaluated as 3.78 and the standard order of categorized gapsrecognized as per age (Bonett and Wright, 2015). Approx. 33 participants are found differentmore categorized with critical aspects. Living accommodation type states that 20 maleparticipants live as student accommodation, 13 male types lives as family home and 24 maletypes live as independently. Same as male participants, 18 female live in studentaccommodation, 24 females as family home and 17 females lives independently. In total 38participants live with student accommodation, 37 lives as family home and 41 participants livesas independently.Section 2Brief summary of the SectionThe Group Differences between two or more variables or scales of measurement usingDescriptive Statistics utilises the ascertainment of Compare Means between them. It is useful insummarising and analysing the differences across one or more factors which are usuallycategorical variables (Cronk, 2017). In the context of given case scenario, the clinic is interestedin finding the group difference between two scales viz. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) Measuresand Health Value Scale have been taken into account. For this purpose, VAS measure related towhether or not participants reported that they had perceived an alcohol related illness ever wasconsidered. To analysing this data, Compared Means by ANOVA Table and Test of Linearityhave been performed whose key inferential statistical information is appended whereas thenecessary descriptive statistics have been conducted.Descriptive of VAS and HVSReportHealth Value Scale3
Perceived alcohol relatedillness everMeanNStd. DeviationVarianceNo19.75555.00525.045Yes19.28614.41619.504Total19.501164.68921.991Interpretation:This table indicates the descriptive statistical measures of central tendency as well asdispersion. As per the report generated, it can be analysed that average number of participantswho did not perceive an alcohol related illness ever in relation to the Health Value Scale were19.75% or 55. Whereas average number of participants who did perceive such an illness are19.28% or 61. The total variance recorded for these two categorical variables is 21.991 while thestandard deviation is 4.689.Measures of AssociationRR SquaredEtaEta SquaredHealth Value Scale *Perceived risk of alcoholrelated illness/disease (0-100).059.003.673.453Interpretation:This table provides the measures of association which is the output generated underCompare Means usingStatistics for First Layer.This performs a one-way ANOVA andcomputes the linearity fit statistics between the two measures (Drake, Rancilio and Stafford,2017). It is important to note that linearity cannot be computed if the independent variable in thefirst layer is a short-string. This renders theR valueat 0.059 which denotes the correlationcoefficient. As per this value, the strength and direction of the two variables is positive yet low.This showcases that there is a positive relationship yet their influence on each other is not strongenough to completely control the direction of one another. The proportsion of variance for thedependent variable, that is Health Value Scale, that is explained by independent variable, that is,perceived risk of alcohol related illness/disease comes out to be 0.3% or 0.003. This value isrepresented byR-squaredin the above table. Such a score is quite low and denotes that there ishardly any impact of the independent variable on dependent one (Egbert and Staples, 2019).Lastly, theEta and Eta squaredvalues under this statistical test come out to be 0.673 and0.453. On comparing these values with theANOVAtable, it can be said that the f-value is closer4
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