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Running head: Vroom's Expectancy theory 1Literature reviewThe acceptance of teenager towards E-sport"
Vroom's Expectancy theory2Literature ReviewE-sport is considered as the form of competition that is helped by electronic systemespecially in video games. Human computer interfaces are the medium between the input ofplayers and team along with the output of the e-sport system. Sports have not only become acultural phenomenon but also provide opportunities for brand to reach a community of fans. Ascompared to other sports, a remarkable ecosystem of business has created around E-sports whichare considered as the subset of gaming (Kiatkawsin and Han, 2017). There are severalcontributions including to establish the E-sports effectively that is game publishers, formalleagues, hardware manufacturers, streaming platforms and tournament provide services in orderto grow customers and as per viewership which is based on millions. It has been believed by theanalysts that the total worldwide market for E-sports will exceed $700million in 2016 and it hasbeen studied that the viewership is examined 214 million today and it has expected that it willcross 303 million by 2019.It has been analyzed in the report offree report preview, (2017),that the consumption ofconsumers has changed drastically. People has become more interested towards game and theydo not only enjoy watching each other instead of professionally built but they have the tendencyto share, build and willing to be a part of the experience. The growth of E-sports is doneexplosively and the success of sharing the content of video game gives example this more thananything else. It has been studied that in 2005, the rat of consumers and the interest of teenagersin E-sports were 1% and after ten years, everyone creates and shares their experiencesdesperately and can earn money in serious manner by doing so.
Vroom's Expectancy theory3It would be the great contribution of Vroom’s expectancy theory in the research topic ofacceptance of teenagers towards E-sport. It is the belief ofVroom’s Expectancy theory thatalmost people are goal oriented. It is the theory which will be helpful to understand the variousaspects of motivation and explain that people are enthusiastic when they have the perception toget rewarded when they would do good job. It has been found that a pro-gamer can earn incomeonly by winning competition, but attain nothing in case of losing game or competition. E-sportcompetition can offer some professional payer to get involved in the contract so that they canearn certain amount in the form of basic pay which is very less but proved that something isbetter than nothing. However, in the case of winning competition, team may earn a huge amountof money in the form of winning prizes. For instance, there is a famous E-sport organization thatis Team Liquid, the team of this organization had won a match on Dota competition and they got10 million dollar as a prize which is very huge amount. Furthermore, once a professional playerhas become famous and known by everyone, he can earn income form endorsing computerspecs.Figure 1: Enthusiasts’ gamers
Vroom's Expectancy theory4Source: (Newzoo, 2014).Vroom’s Expectancy theory is compatible with the research topic because when peopledetermine for their future, the attractiveness of the sector will be the main consideration to them.The three elements in Vroom’s expectancy theory will point out that the factor which affects thedecision of teenager to whether take E-sport as their career. There are three elements of thistheory expectancy, instrumentality and Valence. The first element of this theory Expectancywhich demonstrates that enhanced efforts will lead to good performance. It is the strength of theperson that he is sure about his skills and makes ensure that he will achieve possible outcomes asper his expectations. A confidence is strength in itself when an individual has great confidencetowards his performance, indeed, he could perform in adequate manner for the purpose ofachieving the aim. On the other hand, an individual who has not willing to put efforts forwinning the match, considered as zero expectancy (Hsu, Shinnar and Powell, 2014). Theliterature review on the topic of the acceptance of teenager towards E-sport describes that theexpectancy and the confidence of the teenager towards their self-development in the sector of E-Sports will influence the decision of them for being the professional player. It has been observedthat every teenager want to be a successful and many of them want to do something differentinstead of 10 to 5 job. The first element of Vroom theory defines that how effort lead anindividual to high performance. It is required to make them aware about the advantages of e-sport organization so that they put effort as per their skill for becoming the processional player.The efforts are compulsory to get the expected result and the element of expectancy measures theconfidence of person in being able to get outcome expected.It has been stated byPhuong, Binh and Hai, (2017),that it is not needed of talent andeffort of an individual to have a rank on key competition. It is necessary to have the synergy of