Exploring Air Pollution Problems in Australia

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EXPLORING AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS: A FOCUS ON BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA1Exploring Air Pollution Problems: A Focus on Brisbane, AustraliaStudent’s NameDepartmentUniversity AffiliationAddressEmailWord Count: 2500
EXPLORING AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS: A FOCUS ON BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA2ContentsIntroduction......................................................................................................................................2Search terms and criteria.................................................................................................................2Critical appraisal of the articles.......................................................................................................3Major air pollutants......................................................................................................................3Public health problems.................................................................................................................4Environmental issues...................................................................................................................7Critical analysis to answer the questions.........................................................................................7Primary air pollution problems in Brisbane.................................................................................7Major sources of pollution...........................................................................................................8Whether they are related to other environmental issues..............................................................9Impacts of air pollution on public health.....................................................................................9Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................10Statements of competing interests.................................................................................................10References List..............................................................................................................................11
EXPLORING AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS: A FOCUS ON BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA3Exploring Air Pollution Problems: A Focus on Brisbane, AustraliaIntroductionAir pollution is explicitly acknowledged to be a substantial public health issue,responsible for an increasing range of environmental and health consequences. The health effectsof air pollution are becoming a burden to healthcare systems. Air pollution is the presence ofharmful substances in the air at concentrations that present a health threat. Common airpollutants are CO, SO2, PAHs and particulate matter, which may originate from differentsources such as vehicle emissions, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning. (3, 18, 19)Thesmoke produced in closed spaces from cooking may also cause air pollution. Rapid urbanisationfurther increases the risk of exposure to ambient air pollutants. The rationale of this paper is toinvestigate how air pollution affects public health.In this scholarly paper, a literature review was performed into the concept of airpollution, its causes, and impact on public health with a focus on Brisbane, Australia, which isthe selected community. Recent peer-reviewed articles published between 2012 and 2017 wereretrieved from MEDLINE and CINAHL Plus. The research questions are; what are the main airpollution problems in Brisbane, Australia? What are the key sources? Are they associated withother environmental issues? How does the air pollution affect public health?Search terms and criteriaA literature search was conducted using CINAHL Plus and MEDLINE as the twoprimary academic databases to investigate current knowledge on air pollution and public health.The search terms were air, pollution, problems, sources, environmental, issues, Brisbane and
EXPLORING AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS: A FOCUS ON BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA4Australia. Boolean operators that were used to facilitate the literature search were AND and OR.The search mode was “find all my search” while the expander was “apply all related words”.Year of publication was used as a limiter in the literature search. It was performed for the yearsbetween 2012 and 2017. Source type was “all results”, and the language was English. The searchcriteria yielded several meta-analyses and systemic reviews, and many recent studies on theassociation between air pollution and public health. For instance, the search “air AND pollutionAND Brisbane” yielded 124 results in MEDLINE and 723 results in CINAHL Plus. 20 articleswere found to be relevant and included in this study.Critical appraisal of the articlesThe primary themes that were discerned from the pertinent articles were categorised intothree, major air pollution sources, environmental issues and public health problems. Thesethemes were appraised using the apposite literature.Major air pollutantsAlharbi et al.[ CITATION Alh15 \l 1033 ]conduct a study to determine the concentration ofthoron and radon in workplaces in Brisbane. Several workplaces were selected randomly aroundBrisbane, and active method was used to measure the level of radon and thoron concentration.Closed areas were found to have the highest concentrations of radon, 86.6 ± 6.0 Bq m−3. On theother hand, maximal thoron concentration was discovered in stores, 78.1 ± 14.0 Bq m−3. Theresearchers found that the concentration of these gases was low during working hours and highafter working hours due to the difference in ventilation. Besides, they unravelled that concreteflooring was a significant contributor of the radon and thoron in the environment.
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