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Facilities Operations Management Assignment (Doc)

Added on - 08 Dec 2020

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Final Project Report[Name of Student][Name of Institute]
AbstractWith caffeine having significant physiological, behavioural and predominantlystimulatory effects on the central nervous system, caffeine consumption has beenhistorically linked to adverse health effects. However, further research and studiesindicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial such as a positive effect on theskin. This report is a detailed account on background research on caffeine and thedifferent impacts of caffeine on the human heart pertaining to heart rate variabilityand heart rate variability (HRV), HRV parameters including time-domain measures,frequency-domain measures and geometric measures, clinical significance andindustrial relevance on the influence of caffeine as well as bringing attention to thegrowing use of caffeine in the changing clinical and industrial landscape.Heart ratevariability is a non-invasive factor to check autonomic modulation of heart. LF/HFdecreases after the consumption of Caffeine. Caffeine consumption triggers theautonomous nervous system of a human. However, Caffeine influence on thenervous system depends on the extent of impairment. Blood pressure, Heart rate,heart rate variability is investigated clearly. Modulations of the nervous system aretracked by heart rate variability. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact ofcaffeine on frequency & time domain parameters of heart rate variability.i
Table of ContentsAbstract..........................................................................................................................iAbbreviations................................................................................................................v1 Introduction................................................................................................................12 Caffeine......................................................................................................................22.1 Background on Caffeine.....................................................................................22.1.1 How Caffeine Works?.................................................................................52.2 The Effect of Caffeine on the Human Body.......................................................62.3 Benefits of Caffeine..........................................................................................102.3.1 Weight loss................................................................................................102.3.2 Brain Function...........................................................................................102.3.3 Alertness....................................................................................................112.3.4 Sport Performance.....................................................................................112.3.5 Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Disease.......................................................112.3.6 Skin Cancer................................................................................................112.3.7 Kidney Stones............................................................................................122.3.8 Stroke.........................................................................................................122.3.9 Cataract & Eyelid Spasm...........................................................................122.3.10 Type 2 Diabetes.......................................................................................122.3.11 Throat, Mouth and other Cancers............................................................132.4 Risk related to Caffeine....................................................................................132.4.1 Depression.................................................................................................132.4.2 Blood Sugar...............................................................................................132.4.3 Gout & Incontinence..................................................................................132.4.4 Insomnia & Headache................................................................................142.4.5 Other Adverse Effects................................................................................142.4.6 Glaucoma...................................................................................................142.4.7 Osteoporosis..............................................................................................142.4.8 Irritable Bowel Syndrome..........................................................................152.5 Drug Interaction................................................................................................153 Heart Rate Variability (HRV)..................................................................................163.1 Introduction to Heart Rate Variability (HVR)..................................................163.2 Pathologies Related to HRV Changes..............................................................18ii
3.2.1 Myocardial Infarction................................................................................183.2.2 Diabetic Neuropathy..................................................................................193.2.3 Cancer........................................................................................................193.2.4 Liver Cirrhosis...........................................................................................193.2.5 Sepsis.........................................................................................................193.2.6 Cardiac Transplantation.............................................................................203.2.7 Myocardial Dysfunction............................................................................203.2.8 Cardiac Death............................................................................................203.2.9 Tetraplegia.................................................................................................203.3 Physiological Determinants of Heart Rate Variability Components................213.3.1 Heart Rate Autonomic Influences.............................................................213.3.2 Components...............................................................................................223.4 Modification in HRV by Specific Interventions...............................................223.4.1 β-Adrenergic blockade...............................................................................233.4.2 Antiarrhythmic Drug.................................................................................233.4.3 Scopolamine..............................................................................................233.4.4 Thrombolysis.............................................................................................243.4.5 Exercise Training.......................................................................................243.4.6 Wind Instruments.......................................................................................243.4.7 Biofeedback...............................................................................................243.5 The Use of Heart Rate Variability in Psychology and Emotion Science.........243.5.1 Respiration in HRV Research....................................................................263.6 Respiration Impact during Social & Emotional Task.......................................273.7 Poor Nature of HRV.........................................................................................283.8 HRV Non-Linear Nature..................................................................................293.9 External Factors that may influence Heart Rate Variability.............................313.10 Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Parameters......................................................313.10.1 Time-domain Methods.............................................................................323.10.2 Frequency-domain Methods....................................................................333.10.3 Geometric Methods.................................................................................383.10.4 Non-Linear HRV Parameter....................................................................394 Industrial & Clinical Relevance of HRV & Caffeine..............................................404.1 Theory, Methodologies Developed/Used.........................................................41iii
5 Methodology............................................................................................................425.1 Consumption of Caffeine/Coffee......................................................................435.2 Co-Variables.....................................................................................................445.3 Analysis............................................................................................................456 Project Prototype ECG Circuit Design....................................................................466.1 ECG Circuit Design..........................................................................................466.1.1 ECG...........................................................................................................466.1.2 Instrumentational (Bio-potential) Amplifier..............................................486.1.3 Inverting Amplifier....................................................................................506.1.4 Differential Amplifier................................................................................516.2 Band Pass Filter................................................................................................526.3 ECG Beat Detection.........................................................................................557 Result.......................................................................................................................567.1 Justification of Result.......................................................................................578 Discussion................................................................................................................589 Summary..................................................................................................................6010 Conclusion.............................................................................................................61References...................................................................................................................62iv
AbbreviationsHRV -Heart Rate VariabilityECG - ElectrocardiogramHF- High FrequencyLF- Low FrequencyRRI- RR peak intervalSOB- Shortness of BreathADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorderNCCA – National Collegiate AssociationFDA- Food & Drug AdministrationVLF- Very low FrequencyTP- Total PowerPL- PlaceboEFSA- European Food Safety EnergyUV- UltravioletPPG- PhotoplethysmographyOCD- Obsessive Compulsive DisorderSA- SinoatrialMI – Myocardial InfarctionSDNN- Standard Deviation of NN IntervalSDANN- Standard Deviation of average NN intervalRMSSD- Root mean square of successive differenceSDSD- Standard deviation of successive differenceEBC- Estimated Breath CycleULF- Ultra Low FrequencyDFT- Discrete Fourier TransformAR- Autoregressive ModelPHF- Power High Frequency RangeLHF- Power Low Frequency RangePVLF- Power in the very Low Frequency RangePT- Total PowerPULF-Power in Ultra Frequency Rangev
DFA- Detrendet Fluctuation AnalysisCHF- Chronic Heart FailureDMM- Digital molecule matterCMRR- Common mode rejection ratiovi
1 IntroductionCaffeine is widely used around the world in the form of beverages, most commonexample is coffee which is the most popular beverage not only due to its stimulatingeffects but also due to the organoleptic characteristics(Ribeiro and Sebasitiao, 2010,pp. S3-S15). Caffeine helps in stimulating cognitive skills. Caffeine is associatedwith both benefits and risks. Caffeine impact the cardiovascular system of the bodyand has both chronic and acute effects. Acute effects include a rise in systolic bloodpressure and the sympathetic nervous system activation along with the elevation ofthe level of catecholamines in the circulatory system(Nehlig, 2010, pp. S85-S94).Chronic effect includes cardiovascular disorders. Heart Rate Variability is a methodto check the modulation of cardiac activities. Heart rate variability indications aremeasured by a various method related to the RR-interval (interbeat) in the ECG canbe used to check the mortality chances in a healthy person, autonomic imbalance &mortality due to different conditions like Heart Failure and Myocardial Infarction.(Glad, 2010, pp.932-938).There are various studies that deal with the effects of caffeine & coffee on Heart RateVariability parameters(Nehlig, 2010, pp. S85-S94). Some Studies indicates Increaseof Heart Rate Variability while other shows no change or reduction in vagal toneindexes due to the infusion or ingestion of caffeine or coffee both in a healthy personand in individuals with Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure or Diabetes. HRV withits spectral analysis RRI (R-R peak interval) of successive heartbeats divided into HF(high frequency) & LF (low frequency). High Frequency is the indicator of theparasympathetic activity of the heart and while fluctuation of the low frequency ofHeart Rate Variability at rest and is not related to nerve sympathetic activity of themuscle. However, some orthostatic challenges show that change of sympatheticnerve activation of muscles and power ratio of LF/HF are parallel. However, the ratioof HRV shows enhanced adrenergic activity in response to stress. According to someresearches HRV modulation following the injury of the spinal cord due toSympathetic nervous tone loss corresponding LF loss. Caffeine is an excellent tool toinvestigate further its impacts on the autonomic nervous system in tetraplegic &paraplegic people because of its stimulant properties. Further caffeine is associated1
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