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ELECTRICAL ANDELECTRONICFUNDAMENTAL

TABLE OF CONTENTSTASK 1...........................................................................................................................................1A. Ohm's law.........................................................................................................................1B. Kirchhoff's current and voltage law (KVL and KC)........................................................2C. Validation of Kirchhoff's law...........................................................................................4D. Thevenin's theorem...........................................................................................................6TASK 2............................................................................................................................................9A. Calculate...........................................................................................................................9B. Phasor diagram...............................................................................................................10TASK 3..........................................................................................................................................10A. Semiconductor action.....................................................................................................10B. Discrete semiconductor devices......................................................................................13C. Performance and applications of bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and field effectivetransistor (FET)...................................................................................................................14TASK 4..........................................................................................................................................14A. Difference between analogue and digital electronics.....................................................14B. Truth table for the given combinational circuit..............................................................15C. Logic function for each case...........................................................................................15D. Digital and analogue electronics.....................................................................................16E. Applications....................................................................................................................16F. Electronics applications in terms of relative advantage..................................................17

TASK 1A. Ohm's lawAccording to the Ohm's law the current (I) flowing through a conductor is directlyproportional to voltage drop (V) through it at constant temperature. The proportionality constantis defined as the resistance. Thus, the expression of Ohm's law is given by:VI∝V/I = RWhere R is constant of proportionality and is known as Resistance.For different readings of voltage (Volt) and current (Ampere) the when graph is plotted then astraight line is obtained. The V is plotted on y axis while I is plotted on x axis of the graph. Theslope or gradient of the curve is known as Resistance (R) and its dimensional unit is ohm.I (Ampere)V (Volt)0.2120.3840.5760.8480.99101Illustration1: Circuit diagram

The slope R = V/I. In the figure highlighted slope = 7V / 0.7A = 10 OhmThus, between two points the slope can be calculated as :ΔV /ΔIWhere ΔV is the potential difference between two points andΔI is the current flowing betweentwo points. Thus, the slope at point V = 2V and I=0.2A is given by the gradient expression:R= (2-0) / (0.2-0) = 10 Ohm = Slope of the curveB. Kirchhoff's current and voltage law (KVL and KC)KVL:As per this law, the sum of potential differences in a closed loop must be equal to zero.2Illustration2: V-I plot for calculating slope