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Genetic Testing: Laws, Regulations, and Insurance Policies

   

Added on  2019-09-26

7 Pages1797 Words224 Views
Genetic Testing

Genetic testingThe genetic testing is defined as the DNA testing which allows the prediction of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to the disease inherited by the parents. The testing is called as the progeny testing in the agriculture which is used to examine the quality of breeding stock. In human, the testing of genetic is used to determine the biological relationship between the humans. In the broader sense, it comprises of biological test which is used to determine the genetic disease among the people. The test is used to determine the changes in genes, chromosomes and proteins. There is various type of genetic tests which is used to determine the genetic disease, but earlier it is used to determine the number of an abnormal chromosome whichto inherited disorder (Domchek et al., 2013). In the present genetic test, the analysis of multiple genes is done in order to determine the risk of determining the risk of specific diseases such as cancer, heart disease and others. Other characteristics which are affected by the heredity include mental abilities, natural talent and likelihood which lead to the disease. It is mainly the analysis of proteins, metabolic and chromosomes in order to determine the heritable disease such as mutations, karyotypes, genotypes and other which is used for the clinical purpose. The genetic testing includes diagnostic testing, newborn testing, carrier testing, and prenatal diagnosis, predictive and presymptomatic testing. The non-diagnostic test includes paternity testing, forensic testing, and research testing and genealogical testing. The abnormal trait has no effect on the health, and its minor effect is such as colour blindness, and major effect is on the length of the life. The genetic testing is voluntary because it has some advantages as well as disadvantages.

The process of genetic testing is done by taking the sample of skin blood, amniotic fluid or any other blood issue. The newborn screening is done through taking the small blood sample of the newborn baby, and other generic tests are required if required. The process of genetic testing needs to be understood by an individual in order to understand the benefits and limitations of the test with the consequences of the test. The quality assurance scheme is taken part by the laboritesin order to perform the good quality of genetic tests. The cross check is done by the scientists in order to ensure the correct results. The genetic testing is similar to other medical information which is considered for taking the decision regarding the cure of the patient. The genetic disease is varied from one country to another. Every country needs to focus on the regulations in order tobalance the ethical merits and the insurance industry should abreast to the updated knowledge of genetics to explain the different types of genetic tests.Law & regulations of genetic testingThere are various laws at the state and federal level in order to protect people from the discrimination genetic. In the federal law, it is known as the genetic information non-discrimination act which is developed in order to protect the people against any kind of discrimination. The result of a genetic test must be clearly communicated to the patient in order to take corrective decisions. The results of genetic test affect the insurance coverage of people. Inthe United States, more than thirty states have the legislation in order to prohibit the genetic discrimination. In the France, the genetic tests are legally performed in the country. In German, the human genetic examination act is approved by the parliament which banned all the direct to customer genetic testing (Bernauer et al., 2016). Conducting the anonymous paternity test in German is illegal. The advisory committee on genetic testing was made as a non-statutory

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