Global Perspective of Healthcare - PDF

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Running head: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES OF HEALTHGLOBAL PERSPECTIVES OF HEALTHName of the student:Name of the university:Author note:
1GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES OF HEALTHAddiction is one of the condition in which a person is seen to engage in the use of asubstance as well as behaviour where the rewarding effect is seen to provide a compellingincentive. This incentive forces the person to indulge repeatedly in pursuing the behaviourdespite of different types of detrimental consequences (Ogloff et al., 2017). Addiction is seen toinvolve the utilisation of the number of substances that may include alcohol, inhalants, opioids,cocaine, nicotine and many others. Researchers are of the opinion that addictive substances aswell as behaviours are seen to intensely activate different brain pathways of reward as well asreinforcement that are mainly suspected to include the neurotransmitter dopamine. Addiction hasbeen considered as one of the ten social determinants of health by the world health organisationand these social determents of health is found to have negative impacts on the health of thenatives of Australia or the aboriginals (Eliott, 2015). Tobacco smoking, alcohol use and otherdrugs are indeed considered to be some of the major contributors of high morbidity as well asmortality in the aboriginals as well as the Torres Islanders along with resulting them to lead poorquality lives generation after generation. Therefore, this assignment will show how the socialdeterminants of health “adduction” as proposed by the world Health Organisation are indeedaffecting the health condition of native Australians resulting in poor quality life.Substance use is mainly seen to be the response of different types of social breakdownthat is again an important factor that helps in worsening the resulting inequalities in health. It isalso been seen that individuals uses this mode of addiction as a mirage of escape from theadversity as well as stress (Roy et al., 2016). However, addiction mainly is seen to make thesituations much worse resulting in various types of health disorders and poor quality life. Whenthe smoking rates had been noticed in the surveys conducted on the aboriginals and the TorresIslanders Australians, it can be seen that the rate is quite high. In the year 2008, approximately
2GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES OF HEALTHhalf of the indigenous people for about 49.9% had been seen to be the current smokers. Thisnumber is more than double the number of non-native people from the nation of Australia.Indigenous people who are seen to live in the remote areas have a much higher rate of currentsmokers that is about 51% than the indigenous people in the non-remote areas, which is about46%. Indigenous Australians are seen to be twice in number than that of the non-indigenouspeople who are seen to binge drink like that of 17% and 8% respectively (De Vertiul et al.,2017). When comparisons are done with the non native people, it was seen that the native peoplewho are associated with long term drinking of whiskey is 155 but that of the non natives is 14%.Marijuana is found to be the most common form of drug used that is used. About 51% of thepeople of the native origin are seen to have used drugs of various origins with the familiesaccounting for about 36%. Substance abuse and addiction is seen to play a significant role in thegap of the health status between the Indigenous as well as non-indigenous people in both lifeexpectancy as well as health (Charlton et al., 2017).In order to know how addictive substances gradually became incorporated in the cultureof the aboriginals, one need to go back to the history of the times of colonisation in the nation ofAustralians. If we get back to the period before colonisation, it was seen that pandanus plant,purple orchid tress and honey, corkwood, coconuts, fermented honey and many others were themain source of addiction to the native people. However this form of alcohol was much limited inthe years before colonisation as the absence of suitable containers as well as climatically varyingaccess to these resources created barriers to large scale production and thereby consumption ofthe alcohol (Shahrom et al., 2017). In the year 1964, a majority of theLegislative CouncilCommittee member were seen to vote for the northern Territory at that time,. Due to its impact,alcohol was made viable to the aboriginal people. Therefore, white people were the main people
3GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES OF HEALTHin the nation of the Australia who have introduced the non-native people to alcohol. However,the main destruction that occurred from such situation was that they never discussed the dangersas well as the harmful effect that was associated with that of alcohol consumption. There wereaboriginal veterans who were stated saying that after a tiresome day at work when he wasreturning, he saw a white man drink beer and he thought that it might be the source which makethem powerful (Donovan et al., 2015). There the Europeans used lack of knowledge of theaboriginals as a weapon to expose them to an addiction by which they can never develop thestrength to fight back and be the distressed class with different physical, mental and emotionalturmoil. However, there had been debates about this belief about the intent of the white peoplebehind introducing alcohol, but the trend of alcohol drinking had initiates theory their hands onlyand this had in the modern day taken an extensive turn where they had been destroying lives ofhuge number of native people (Pumarino et al., 2017). When extensive researches are conducted.Statistical data has shown that alcohol addiction is associated with huge number of destructiveevents. There was about 44% of fire injuries as well as 40% of domestic violence incidents.There have been also evidences of about 345 of falls as well as drowning. There has been also305 of road accidents with 10% of industrial accidents. There has been also 70% of police timetackling alcohol crime.Excessive addiction to alcohol has resulted the aboriginals to not only suffer fromphysical disorders but also involve them in a large number of social issues. Alcohol drinking isseen to cause deaths in large number of aboriginals due to liver as well as alcoholic livercirrhosis (Ross et al., 2015). It has been reported that the average age if death from the alcoholrelated cause is only 35. Besides, different forms of health problems like liver diseases,pancreatitis, and diabetes as well as some forms of cancer are also seen to be higher in the native
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