Global Politics Assignment | Energy and Environment

Added on - 20 Sep 2019

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Global politics of energy andenvironmental change
IntroductionThe fracking is the process of combining horizontal drilling via computer system aid andhydraulic fracturing, and this resulted in the emergence of the shale revolution. For this century,Shale has turned out to be the most dynamic change in technology after various changes inInformation Technology. It has radically changed the viewpoint for US energy security concernsas well as their calculations for national strategies. This has led to the modification in the globalpolitics by transforming Canada, Mexico, the United States as the new source of attractive forcefor production of oil and gas. This revolution has strengthened the economy of United Stateswith the nominal prices of gas leading to boost up in the manufacturing sector of United States. Ithas modified market economies to lower down the use of thermal, solar, the wind and nuclearpower energy. It has led to emergence of the post-petroleum era and reduced greenhouse gasemissions in the United States by eliminating coal as the major source for generation ofelectricity. The United States holds vast supply and reserves of shale gas specifically in Texas,Louisiana, Pennsylvania, North Dakota, NewYork. If we refer to America, then it has come to bean energy giant irrespective of its political and legislative decision that it has undertaken so far. Itis believed that the extension of diffusing fracking technology internationally to China, Australia,Central Europe in the coming decade may further transform the energy landscape and therebylead to significant reduction in generation of greenhouse gases further.The United States and the shale revolutionBy 2017, United States is estimated to get ahead of Saudi Arabia to become the world's largestproducer of oil and gas hydrocarbons. It is further predicted that it will become the net exporterof oil by the year 2030. The natural gas stock is so high in supply at present that it can meet the
demand of next 100 years of United States. The rapid progress of the shale phenomenon since2008-09 reminds the process through which technology get marketed and transformation ofreality through quick innovations and inventions. The technology has been existing since almosta decade although shale and the natural gas phenomenon has got popularized only a few yearsback. The development of hydraulic fracturing, directional drilling, and various gas recoveringtechnologies are the reasons why the technology got so popularized. However, their commercialviability has increased because of a combination of the public and private partnership of researchthat was financed by the government since the year 1971. The shale technology, however, is notstagnant and it has been growing with various developments of reducing the amount of waterused, improvisation of knowledge regarding what all the shale gas id made up of and therebyraising the productivity levels of shale gas and oil productions. Improvements I technology hasalso reduced the costs of productions. China has been dependent on coal products for roughly 70percent of the production of electricity. Since Beijing has made a lot of investments inrenewables hence China holds larger recoverable reserves of shale gas than over the UnitedStates even though the scope of development is restricted for the former. Even if Chains hasmade large efforts, very small progress has been witnessed in the lines of development of shalereserves. Further Argentina, Brazil and Mexico holds significantly recoverable reserves of shalegas. The United States still have unexplored capabilities so as to raise the export levels of shalegas to say to Europe. However, it has to undertake new liquefaction facilities by building upthose plants that convert gas into the liquid in the Gulf of Mexico. However doing this wouldrequire a large amount of capital investment, favorable legislative laws, and professionalspecialization. Creating such facilities will create more energy options for exporting or importingas well.
Shale Revolution and the prospects of EuropeThe production of Shale Gas can help in reducing the dependence or Europe on the imports ofliquefied natural gas (LNG) from North Africa and the Gulf countries as well the dependence onRussia in the longer run. Four major on the shore shale basins exists in Europe (from easternDenmark to Poland, from Northwest England to Netherlands, from southern England to Franceand from Hungary to Bulgaria). Since a small test of drilling has been done estimates relating torecoverable reserves are not clear but calculated to be 33% of the total of the reserves that existin the United States. The shale gas production has been impeded in the European Union due tovarious reasons as follows. In states of European Union, the ownership of property is notextended to the rights that are accorded for minerals, so the part that the entrepreneurs would buyrights from those owning property and go on for the fracking has not been considered. Moreover,public acceptance for it has been restricted because of their concerns for the environment as wellas the spread of pollution. As a result of such increased concerns and awareness, France andBulgaria has seized the process of fracking. If we talk about Poland, Great Britain, and Ukraine,then these are those countries which are actively indulged in the process of pursuing shale gasproduction. The United Kingdom has even offered additional incentives for the owners ofproperty in the process of their shale production to continue and to be explored further. Londonis making efforts to encourage the shale production to compensate for the decline in the supplyof oil and gas reserves as a result of a decline in North Sea production. Although France hasbanned the production of shale gas yet, the United Kingdom has already signed an agreementwith a French company so as to explore their shale-related reserves. Similarly, Poland andUkraine has signed contracts with certain firms operating at large scale in the United States for
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