(PDF) The Growing Problem of Humanizing Robots

Added on - 21 Apr 2021

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Running Head: ROBOTICSRoboticsClient’s NameInstitution
ROBOTICS2IntroductionRobots are used in humanizing workplaces. Human operators that interact with these robots areexposed to hazardous environment hence have to be protected through proper robot use. In industries,activities that include welding, forging, spray painting, fettling, die casting and deburring involve the useof robots.These robots may impose dangers to such human operators in instances such as operation time,programming or during robot maintenance. The personnel that interact with these robots have to takeprecautions during testing of programmes at low speeds with an included panic button for use duringemergencies[ CITATION Ani17 \l 1033 ].The important robot safety features remain in the work cell design layouts. While the cells are being laidout, it is important to ensure proper grounding of the electrical cables and arrangement of pneumaticand hydraulic lines in the required manner. During maintenance, power from the mains has to beswitched off. When operations are being conducted, there has to be proper guarding and use of helmetsis recommended for avoiding physical injury.Learning Outcome1.Identification of sources of safety hazards.2.Identification of types of accidents.3.Identification of safety measures.Safety measuresFor the protection of human operatives, the following measures are key;Fencing the work cell that contains the environment of robot interaction with peripheral machines.There have to be gates that allow access and exit to and from the work cell. These gates can be installed
ROBOTICS3with interlocking devices for the purpose of interrupting the robot’s action in case the gate is open.These gates have to be fitted with safety sensors to ensure foolproof safety[ CITATION Kev17 \l 1033 ].The figure below depicts an illustration of safety sensor location that can be installed in robot work cells.This work cell has three distinct cones that are; zone A (periphery zone), zone B (work cell area) zone C(robot’s envelope section).The existence of pressure mats provide better sensing on the floor for improved safety in areas B and A.if a person stands s on the mat, the sensors get activated and the robot’s action gets interrupted. Thesepressure maps can also issue warning alarms. A proximity sensor can also be installed on the robot’swrist and arm or sensing and detecting intrusion into the work cell within the robot’s work envelope.Also, there is a need for speed monitoring that reduces speed to a safe level with principled obstacleavoidance that follows the sensor intrusion detection. This allows the robot to divert its motion foravoiding a direct collision. Photosensitive devices having light sensors can be used in detecting theoperative presence of humans through light beams interruption when one enters the work cellzones[ CITATION Rom17 \l 1033 ].Human Erroris the biggest safety hazard so far that relates to robots. The basis of robots is the ability tobe programmed for specific tasks for repeated activity that may last for months or years withoutvarying. However, humans are unpredictable in their actions. People interacting with robots are
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