HBS108 Health Information and Data Assignment

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Assignment 21HBS108 HEALTH INFORMATION AND DATA: ASSIGNMENT 2by (Name)CourseTutorInstitutionLocationDate
Assignment 22HBS108 Health Information and Data: Assignment 2Task AQ1(a) Cross-sectional survey designQ1(b) Ordinal scaleQ1(c) i) Ratio scaleii) Ratio scaleiii) Interval scaleQ1(d) Caloric intake may be under-reported since most individuals tend tounderestimate the sizes of their food portions, they overlook the consumption of foodswhich are perceived as unhealthy. According to Basiotis, et al., (2000), people alsohave the tendency of exaggerating foods they perceive to be good for their health.Most individuals especially obese individuals tend to overestimate the energy theyexpend in physical activities. Persons who present with the inability to shed weightregardless of a history of caloric restriction are among a group of individuals who areprone to misreport their caloric intake and level of physical activity[ CITATIONSte92 \l 1033 ].This is a measurement bias because they are resulting from the poor measurement ofthe outcome being measured.Q1(e) The figure 24.9 means that obese women made up 24.9% of the totalpopulation. This is within the range of 23.1% to 26.8%. The 95% confidence limit(23.1-26.8) means that there is a 95% chance that the interval 23.1-26.8 contains thetrue population mean.Q1(f) In the period between 1988 and 1994, 24.9% of women were obese comparedto 35.4% in the period between 2009 and 2010. With a 95% confidence interval, in
Assignment 231988-1995, there is a 95% chance that between 23.1% and 26.8% of the totalpopulation were obese females, whereas with the same interval, between 33.6% and37.3% of the total population were obese females in 2009-2010.Q1(g) Yes, there was a statistically significant change in the likelihood of havingobesity over the years. An odds ratio of 1.026 means that an individual had anincreased chance (by 1.026) of being obese in the following year. The 95%confidence interval for 1.026 ranged from 1.019 to 1.033.Q1 (h)(i)This observation can be supported by a statistically insignificant change inthe amount of calories taken between the two periods. In 1988-1994,women aged eighteen years and older only consumed a mean of 1761 Kcalwhereas, in 2009-2010, they consumed a mean of 1781 Kcal. Thedifference between the mean is insignificant. The kcal/day (95% CI) datawas used instead of the APC because the latter does not take into accountthe changing rates.(ii)The authors cite the lack of evidence in the increase in the average dailycaloric intake over the previous two decades. The support their observationusing a 2011 study by Austin and colleagues who made a conclusion of adecrease in caloric intake in the recent years[ CITATION Aus11 \l 1033 ].(iii)Yes, I would recommend programs to focus on just increasing physicalactivity. This is supported by both the conclusion of the authors who statedthat their results laid more emphasis on physical activity as proposed in theIOM report on obesity. The authors associate BMI and waistcircumference trends with physical activity and not daily caloric intake[ CITATION Lad14 \l 1033 ].
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