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Running head- Health Promotion Models and TheoriesHealth Promotion Modelsand Theories
1Health Promotion Models and TheoriesIntroductionThe action or activities of the people which is undertaken to detect the disease or for the purposeof preventing from the disease in order to enhance well-being and health is known as healthbehavior (Hayden, 2017). There is a significant impact of health behavior on the health and well-being of the people. The health behavior of the people is not rigid or unchangeable. The healthbehavior of the people can be changed and modified. The healthy behavior of an individual alsoinfluences the health behavior of other people around him/her (Hayden, 2017). Therefore, it canbe said that the health behavior of the people is modifiable. In order to employ the influence ofhealth behavior on health, the health behavior can be held in three ways such as by leading toearly recognition or treatment of disease, by making biological changes directly, and byidentifying the health risk (Sallis et al., 2015).There are mainly two types of health behavior such as health improving behavior and health-damaging behavior. Health improving behavior is also known as a healthy behavior, anddamaging health behavior is known as risky behavior. As it has been discussed that the healthbehavior significantly influences the health of the people, it is important to encourage the healthimproving behavior or healthy behavior and discourage the health damaging behavior or riskybehavior (Patel et al., 2015).There are various health promotion and behavior change theories/model which are important tostudy in order to gain in-depth knowledge about the health behavior and their application tochanging poor health behavior.
2Health Promotion Models and TheoriesHealth Belief ModelIt is one of the most common models in the field of health promotion and health education. Itwas developed by the social psychologist in the early 1950s at the United States public healthservices (Green and Murphy, 2014). The main purpose to develop the health belief model was tounderstand the causes of failure of the individuals to adopt screening test to initial detection ofdisease or the prevention strategies for the disease. The model states that personal belief andperception about the disease and available strategies to minimize the occurrence of diseasedetermine the health behavior of the people (Green and Murphy, 2014). The personal beliefs andperception of the people are also influenced by a wide range of interpersonal factors whichsignificantly influence the health behavior of the individual.The health belief model is derived from behavioral and psychological theory. The foundations ofthe model are two components such as the belief that a particular health-related action wouldcure or prevent illness and the wish to avoid disease. Ultimately the course of action of thepeople frequently depends on the perception and beliefs of the people regarding the benefits andbarriers associated with health behavior.
3Health Promotion Models and TheoriesThe following are four main perceptions which serve as the major constructs of the model;perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, as well as perceived barriers.To explain the health behavior of the people each of the perceptions can be used individually orin combination (Skinner et al., 2015). There are two more constructs which have been added tothis model cue to action as well as self-efficacy.Perceived SusceptibilityOne of the most powerful perceptions of the people to promote to adopt healthy behavior isperceived susceptibility or personal risk. If an individual perceives a higher risk of the disease,he/she will engage actively in such behavior which would decrease the risk of disease. Perceivedsusceptibility or personal perception of risk significantly influence the health behavior of thepeople. It motivates and encourages people to use measures to reduce the risk of disease orillness (Skinner et al., 2015). It is logical and true as well that when an individual perceives thathe or she is at risk h,e or she will do something to prevent that risk. It is also true that whensomeone perceives that he or she is not at risk, the risky behavior may occur in the result.