Running head- Health Promotion Models and TheoriesHealth Promotion Modelsand Theories
1Health Promotion Models and TheoriesIntroductionThe action or activities of the people which is undertaken to detect the disease or for the purpose of preventing from the disease in order to enhance well-being and health is known as health behavior (Hayden, 2017). There is a significant impact of health behavior on the health and well-being of the people. The health behavior of the people is not rigid or unchangeable. The health behavior of the people can be changed and modified. The healthy behavior of an individual also influences the health behavior of other people around him/her (Hayden, 2017). Therefore, it can be said that the health behavior of the people is modifiable. In order to employ the influence of health behavior on health, the health behavior can be held in three ways such as by leading to early recognition or treatment of disease, by making biological changes directly, and by identifying the health risk (Sallis et al., 2015). There are mainly two types of health behavior such as health improving behavior and health-damaging behavior. Health improving behavior is also known as a healthy behavior, and damaging health behavior is known as risky behavior. As it has been discussed that the health behavior significantly influences the health of the people, it is important to encourage the health improving behavior or healthy behavior and discourage the health damaging behavior or risky behavior (Patel et al., 2015). There are various health promotion and behavior change theories/model which are important to study in order to gain in-depth knowledge about the health behavior and their application to changing poor health behavior.
2Health Promotion Models and TheoriesHealth Belief ModelHealth belief model is one of the most common theories in the field of health promotion and health education. The health belief model was developed by the social psychologist in the early 1950s at the United States public health services (Green and Murphy, 2014). The main purpose to develop the health belief model was to understand the causes of failure of the individuals to adopt screening test to initial detection of disease or the prevention strategies for the disease. Themodel states that personal belief and perception about the disease and available strategies to minimize the occurrence of disease determine the health behavior of the people (Green and Murphy, 2014). The personal beliefs and perception of the people are also influenced by a wide range of interpersonal factors which significantly influence the health behavior of the individual.The health belief model is derived from behavioral and psychological theory. The foundations ofthe model are two components such as the belief that a particular health-related action would cure or prevent illness and the wish to avoid disease. Ultimately the course of action of the people frequently depends on the perception and beliefs of the people regarding the benefits and barriers associated with health behavior.
3Health Promotion Models and TheoriesThere are four main perceptions which serve as the major constructs of the model; perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, as well as perceived barriers. To explainthe health behavior of the people each of the perceptions can be used individually or in combination (Skinner et al., 2015). There are two more constructs which have been added to this model cue to action and self-efficacy. Perceived SusceptibilityOne of the most powerful perceptions of the people to promote to adopt healthy behavior is perceived susceptibility or personal risk. If an individual perceives a higher risk of the disease, he/she will engage actively in such behavior which would decrease the risk of disease. Perceivedsusceptibility or personal perception of risk significantly influence the health behavior of the people. It motivates and encourages people to use measures to reduce the risk of disease or illness (Skinner et al., 2015). It is logical and true as well that when an individual perceives that he or she is at risk h,e or she will do something to prevent that risk. It is also true that when someone perceives that he or she is not at risk, the risky behavior may occur in the result.
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