(PDF) The Role of the Built Environment in Human Life

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HIGHER NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMAIN CONSTRUCTION AND THE BUILTENVIRONMENT29 – GEOTECHICS AND SOIL MECHANICSASSIGNMENTSUBMITTED BY:(YOUR NAME HERE)(YOUR STUDENT ID HERE)SUBMITTED TO:DATED:
1TASK 11.1ROCKSIn geology, rock is a normal and cohesive mixture of one or more minerals. These aggregatesconstitute the fundamental unit of which the solid earth is formed and usually shapequantities that can be identified and mapped[ CITATION Rob20 \l 1033 ].THE ROCK CYCLE:The rock cycle is a sequence of processes that generate and change the rock forms in the crustof the earth. Three major types of rocks are available:[ CITATION Nat19 \l 1033 ]SedimentaryIgneousMetamorphicAny of these rocks are created by physical modifications that are part of the rock cycle, suchas melting, freezing, eroding, compacting, or deforming.1.1.1Sedimentary RocksFrom pieces of other natural rock or organic material, sedimentary rocks are created. Threeforms of sedimentary rocks are available: clastic, organic (biological), and chemical[ CITATION Nat191 \l 1033 ]
Figure1-1: Sedimentary Rocks[ CITATION MKH08 \l 1033 ]FORMATION:Through the weathering, or dissolving, of the exposed rock into tiny pieces, the forming ofsedimentary rocks starts. These pieces are separated from their origins by the mechanism ofdegradation and transferred to a new location through the wind, water, ice, or biologicalactivity.USAGE:Sand and gravel are extracted from the soil for building. For stone production, sandstone andlimestone are used. For producing plaster, rock gypsum is used.1.1.2Igneous RocksAs the hot molten material cools and solidifies, igneous rocks are formed. Igneous rocks maybe produced in a few different forms, too. They are called intrusive, or plutonic, igneousrocks when they are created within the earth. They are called extrusive, or volcanic, igneousrocks, whether they are produced outside or on top of the earth’s crust[ CITATION USG17 \l 1033 ].
Figure1-2: Igneous Rocks[ CITATION GLi20 \l 1033 ]FORMATION:Examples of traditional invasive stones include granite and diorite. For large mineral grains,they have a rugged texture. Alternatively, very tiny grains and a very fine texture includerocks like basalt and obsidian. The texture of Extrusive igneous rocks may often be vesicular,orholey.USAGE:Igneous minerals have a large spectrum of applications. As stone for houses and monuments,one major application is. Diorite was used widely for vases and other decorative artwork byancient cultures and is still used today for sculpture. Both in building architecture and forsculptures, granite is used.1.1.3Metamorphic RocksMetamorphic rocks are rocks that have already been altered by immense heat or pressurefrom their original shape. There are two types of metamorphic stones:[ CITATION The15 \l1033 ]FoliatedNon-foliated
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