Important Aspects of Cognitive and Social Development

Added on -2020-07-22

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Human RelationshipsAnd Life Transitions
This essay stresses on “Important aspects of cognitive and social development that takeplace in child between the age of two to five years (2-5 years) and the factors affecting thisdevelopment”. Throughout the essay theories related to social and cognitive development ofchild will be discussed with examples. The influencing factors in development of a child willalso be discussed. It will also include the application of nursing practice that will be useful indevelopment process. Piaget theory of cognitive development and Vygotsky theory of sociocultural development will be used to discuss the development stages in child. Different stages oflife are important as they offer deep understanding for future. These stages depict the progressionof life and help in identification of major changes during each stage. Cognitive development refers to building thought process, which includes rememberingthings, problem solving and decision making skills (Beebe and Steele, 2013). At the age between2-5 years children gain ability to store and recall the information. This particular stage of life isthe key to symbol development in children. Use of symbols enhances their ability to representone thing to another. Some example of cognitive development at this stage are: understandingsize big and small, identification of colours and shapes i.e. square, rectangle, circle and then tryto match the objects based on their shape. They also recognise number from 1-10 and then countobjects in one to one correspondence. As per the provided scenario, it is considered to be normalin case of Jack, who speaks one to two word and start babbling as it is the initial stage wherethey learn words. This stage is considered to be the first step for the language development(Brown and Lan, 2013). Due to less interaction of parents with jack he was not able get properparental care that result in the lack of speech development. It is necessary for Jack at this stage toget proper stimulation by parents that help in proper brain development.According to the Piaget there are 4 stages of cognitive development among which pre-operational stage describes the development of child from age 2-7 years. He states that at thisstage children start thinking symbolically and start using language more maturely. But thethinking takes place in non-reversible and non-logical manner. At this stage the children's learnto use pictures and different words to represent some particular object. For example children'sstart naming the objects in picture book such as cat, dog birds and many more. They tend to beecocentric and try to see things from the perspective of other people. Along with that at this stage1
children develop memory and power of imagination that help them to differentiate between thepast and future. Similarly, according to Urie Bronfrenbenner's ecological system theory everything in thechild environment effects their growth and development. For example if parents take their childto interesting events of sports or recreation activities than it will affect the child's overall growth.Social development refers to the development of social and emotional skills that helps tomaintain a positive relationship with friends, family, teachers and many other people (Huang,Peters, Vaughn and Witko, 2014). By nature children's at the age between 2 to 5 years are moreworried about their own need and sometimes act as selfish. It happens at this stage that theyrefuse to share things of their interest and do not interact with other people and children aroundthem. Social development starts right from the age of 2 years which involve interaction withother people and at further age after 3 years they try to understand and control the emotions. In case of jack his parents play major role in training him for toilet practice. Being adevelopmental stage it takes time but and they can prepare strategies with other members todevelop continence ability in their child. Due to lack of interaction children are not able expresstheir problems that result in the physical abnormalities. At this stage children start showing awareness about their own feeling and have instantmood shifts. They show fear in some situation like in darkness. They start developing interest forthings they like and starts defending their possession (Leonard and Hill, 2014). According toErikson stages of development theory external factors, society and parents plays major role insocial development of child. His theory includes eight stages among which third stage i.e.Preschooler stage focuses on social development of children between 2-5 years. According tohim during this stage children's copy the surrounding people and then create the playingsituation. At this stage they like to explore world around them and start developing their firstinterest.Vygotsky stress on social contribution for the process of development and he focusesmore on connection with people around them. According to Vygotsky's Social DevelopmentTheory more knowledgeable people like parents and teachers help in the social development ofchildren.2

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