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Industrial Automation System PDF

Added on - 10 Nov 2021

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Industrial Automation System
1Key components of Industrial Automation System:
Industrial Automation System plays a vital role in the field of Instrumentation, Control system
and operational management related to industrial systems. They have various components that
could vary based on the type of industries. The information generated by these elements
communicates with one and another in order to have an optimized2and organized control of
the process/plant. The various components of the Industrial automation system that are
described by the nature of technologies are as follows:
Sensors or Sensing elements
Signal conditioning elements
Signal processing elements
Target handling or Actuation system
Figure 1: Block diagram of an automation system
The architecture of the Industrial automation system is as follows:
1Fuada, Syifaul, Miftakhul Huda, and Rista Aprilowena. "A study Basic Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC) for Effective Learning."International Journal of Computers & Technology, vol.
3.3 (2012).
2R. Bayindir, I. Sefa, I. Colak, & Bektas, (2009). “A. Fault Detection and Protection of Induction
Figure 2: Architecture of automation system
(1)- Real-time online
(2)- General purpose3
(3)- Real-time software and special software
(4)- Embedded hardware and software
Features of conventional mechanical system:
Field bus network:
Field bus has major advantages when compared to Ethernet and it plays a vital role in the
process industries. Field bus could be used for a long time and its maximum span has satisfied
many engineers in the process industries where the Ethernet fails to do that. For instance,
company needs to connect the device through slip rings and if MHz/100 MHz Ethernet could
not work well with the slip ring connection then field bus could serve the purpose. Low-speed
DeviceNet running at 56 kHz had been implemented by the engineers to work well with the
situation and avoid any difficulty4. Implementation of Ethernet at the top physical layer seems
3Wong, I. Kiing, and T. U. Siaw. (2015) "PLC and SCADA Laboratory Experiments for a Final Year
Instrumentation Course."International Journal of Information and Education Technology, vol.
4Bassily, Hany, et al. (2007) "A Mechatronics Educational Laboratory – Programmable Logic
Controllers and Material Handling Experiments." Mechatronics 17.9, 480-8.
to be problematic. In this situation, field bus that has two-wired twisted-pair field level network
could avoid the dangerous situation in the hazardous area5. Additionally, terminators with the
simple screw could also be used that are recognizable to a device installer.
Operation and application of sensors:
Signal Conditioning system:
The signals generated by the sensing element could be altered by the functionality of the signal
conditioning elements. Although the conversion of the signal from one form to another form
(electrical signal) depends on the sensing element, each signal conditioning module is the
attribute of an assembly of sensing elements. For instance, RTD is a temperature sensor that
measures the temperature of the environment with the change in the resistance. This change in
resistance could be determined by the Wheatstone bridge and this Wheatstone’s bridge is
known as the signal conditioning module. The module is composed of analog electronic circuits
that generated the electric signal in the form of current or voltage at a defined range. Signal
conditioning module serves specific purpose to the sensor and it is not suitable for the variable
conversion that deals with the ambient referencing of temperature sensors.
Control and Actuation system:
Actuators are said to be known as the final control element that makes the mechanical
movement. Actuation system promotes the variation in the process variable by converting the
input signals in other forms that could be functional to the actual process. Actuators are said to
be known as the high power devices6. It just produces a motion with the help of the electrical
signal that are generated by the sensors and then it could be converted to other forms. The
functional configuration of the actuation system is shown in the figure given below:
5M. Domínguez, et al. (2014). "Remote Laboratory of a Quadruple Tank Process for Learning in
Control Engineering using Different Industrial Controllers."Computer Applications in
Engineering Education, vol. 22.3, 375-86.
6G. Gabor, D. Zmranda, C. Gyorodi, & S. (2009). Dale, Redundancy method used in PLC related
applications.Soft Computing Applications, SOFA, 119-126.
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