Information Technology for Development - PDF

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Running head: OVERVIEW OF INTERNETWORKINGOverview of Internetworking[Name of the Student][Name of the University][Author note]
OVERVIEW OF INTERNETWORKING11.National infrastructure initiatives that have contributed to expandedbroadband infrastructure:The OECD or the Organization of the Economic Co-operation and Development statedthat the U.S has been contributing to be one of the frontrunners in both fixed as well as themobile broadband subscriptions for internet access. The Government of different countries hasbeen associated with supporting the infrastructure initiatives and have made a huge contributionfor increasing the pervasiveness of the broadband. For example in the country of Japan andSouth Korea along with various EU nations have been enabled by this initiative to roll out of theinfrastructure used for broadband to almost every corner of the respective countries. Besides thissimilar type of initiatives has also been proposed in order to bring out the broadband to majorityof the population living in the rural as well as in the urban areas [1]. But the legislation whichwas needed for doing this was languished in the Washington D.C. Along with all this thecountries which is having eth highest penetration rate for the broadband typically needs to bestandardized in order to use the single multiple access protocol this is very much essential for themobile broadband. Contrarily the U.S has been associated with seeming the contents in order tolet the market decide about the protocol which would be responsible for sorting the accessprotocol which is capable of dominating eth market. Due to all this reason there exists no singlepath forward for the 3G or the 4G mobile broadband access to get adopted. This initially helps inunderstanding the fact why there exists thepockets of GSM, CSMA, TDMA, OFDM, and LTEin the mobile broadband marketplace [2]. The cities of South Korea and Japan have been capableof dominating all other countries in terms of speed. Whereas the citizens of Romanian city hadbeen enjoying the highest peak broadband access speed of around 41.5 Mbps.
OVERVIEW OF INTERNETWORKING22. “Digital divide” within the AustraliaIn spite of the large investments mad on the National Broadband Network, the effect of“digital divide has hardly changes in the country of Australia. According to the “Australianhousehold use of the IT” states that they are doing things which are mostly online along with thisthey are also using an increased number of connected devices [3]. Despite of all this the numberof people who are using the internet is not increasing and the basic parameters of the digitalinequality in Australia has been continuing in defining themselves while using and accessing thevarious online resources. It has been estimated that almost 2.6 million of the Australians are notusing the Internet and nearly about 1.3 million households are not connected [4]. Age has beenacting as one of the critical factors. It has been seen that nine individuals amongst the tenindividuals having the agebetween 15-59 are associated with the usage of the internet whereasthe number drops to eight out ten when the age criteria is considered to eb between 55-64 yearsand lastly six in ten for those having eth age above 65 years. The digital divide is likely to growin Australia. The Australian policy has no longer been aiming at making communications whichare widely accessible across the huge country. The Australian digital inclusion index has alsohighlighted the various problems related to the affordability and unequal access across variousfiles which includes the economic, social and spatial lines [5].3.Countries that have the lowest broadband and Internet access ratesThe country that have the lowest broadband and internet access rate is the UnitedKingdoms. The accessing of the broadband has developed at a very slow rate in the U.K despiteof the Cable operators and the telecommunication carriers having the lowest rate of experienceregarding the competition in the infrastructure of any of the OECD countries. The cableoperators were mainly focusing on offering for the telephony and the digital television services
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