Integrated Treatment in Health Care

Added on - 28 May 2020

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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEWLiterature ReviewName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor note
1LITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionIntegrated treatment is a global trend in health care reforms which chiefly focusesintegrated and coordinated forms of care provisions. Individuals who are suffering from bothmental illness and substance abuse disorder are diagnosed with co-occurring disorder. It has beenfound that the tendency to develop substance abuse disorder is much more in patients who arealready suffering from mental illnesses like schizophrenia or PTSD than individuals who are notsuffering from psychological issues (Torchalla et al. 2012) . The major reason behind this co-occurrence is that psychologically ill individuals often tend to use drugs or alcohol to cope upwith the psychological trauma. Before the concept of integrated health care had arisen, heath careusers suffering from co-occurring disorders are treated separately for each disorder. Patientsundergoing non-integrated treatments often faced issues associated with expensive costs andunsatisfactory outcomes. Integrated treatments and therapies for people suffering from co-occurring disorders are regarded to be best since these treatments are reported to have betteroutcomes and are less expensive than non-integrated treatment. In this literature review, theimportance of integrated treatment for health care service users are being evaluated along withthe evaluation of different approaches of integrated dual diagnosis treatment. Besides that, theliterature review also contains discussion about various barriers, which are hindering theintegrated treatment approaches. Finally it has been concluded that, despite several number ofapproaches used to treat patients with CODs, integrated treatments needs more therapies andapproach for complete recovery of healthcare service users.Literature ReviewImportance of Integrated treatment for patients suffering from mental illness andsubstance abuse disorderSterling, Chi and Hinman (2011) pointed out the importance of integrative approaches inorder to co-occurring disorders and several barriers associated with the treatment of peoplesuffering from Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) use disorders along with Co-occurring Disorders(COD). Initially, the two above mentioned disorders were treated separately but in this era ofmodernizations health care professionals are providing integrated treatment for both AOD andCOD since several researches have been conducted on the disadvantages of separate treatment
2LITERATURE REVIEWand how integrative approaches can deliver a better result. Some of the barriers faced in theprocess of providing integrated health care service include various organizational factors,differences in education and training of healthcare service providers in the different fields andthe stigma associated with both COD and AOD usage.However despite these barriers, surveys have found that co-occurring mental health andsubstance abuse disorders, when treated separately in the past gave rise to several complicationsduring the treatment along with high expense and poorer outcome. Earlier, health care providersused to treat patients with CODs as they would treat any other patients. However, the treatmentsprovided were not well suited for COD patients and thus the need of integrated treatment wasunderstood. Since then, a vast amount of researches have been conducted to provide treatment topatients suffering from all conditions and health care providers have succeeded to identify manykey components that will help them to achieve this goal. In this article, various strategies oftreating patients with both psychological illness and substance abuse disorder have beendiscussed along with the suggestion of mechanisms that will facilities greater integration. Thisarticle has also pointed out that the degree of integration required to ensure that patients with alltypes of severity of CODs are receiving appropriate care, is still lacking, and barriers to theimplementation of integrative models are still to be eradicated completely.Torchalla et al. (2012) stated that since the co occurrence of mental illness like PTSD andSUD has globally increased, various integrative approaches for treating these disorderssimultaneously are highly required. Over the past decade, evaluation and development of severalintegrated treatments have shown gradual progress. In spite of the fact that integrated treatmentshave shown effective reduction in SUD and trauma symptoms, there is insufficient informationto support integrated treatment over non integrated treatment. However, no evidence ofintegrated treatment as being hazardous or less effective than non-integrated treatment has beenfound and hence the article has suggested the use of both integrated and non integrated treatmentin order to treat patients with CODs. Health care service providers who are currently consideringwhich type of treatment is more effective may provide treatments based on the factors likeprogram availability, treatment expenditure and the preference of the healthcare service users.This article has pointed out the requirement of more research and randomized control tries toclarify the effectiveness and efficiency of Integrated Treatment over non-integrated treatment.
3LITERATURE REVIEWThis research has also suggested evaluation of Integrated Treatment programs, evaluation andincorporation of exposure based paradigms, usage of suitable samples and developing innovativeapproaches to increase treatment engagement.Various approaches of treating patients suffering from mental issues and substance abuseMueser and Gingerich 2013 states that high rates of substance abuse disorder is noticed inindividual suffering from serious psychological issues like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia andsevere depression. This in turn imposes a highly negative impact on their life. This articlesuggests various strategies for treating patients with both psychological illness and substancedependence disorder. According to the author, cognitive-behavioral therapy is an effective wayto treat patient who have been diagnosis with dual issues since this therapy will teach moreeffective copping and interpersonal skills, social network engagement and supporting functionalrecovery. Social workers need to play an important role in assessing, treating and referringpatients with co-occurring disorder in a good number of settings. The author solely believes thathealthcare professionals themselves should solely belief in the possibility of the patients to getrecovered from the co-occurring disorder, along with installing the same belief in the patient andhis/her family, friends and relatives.Jones et al. 2011 opined that an integrated treatment approach is needed to treat patientswho are suffering from both co morbid substance usage disorder and bipolar disorder. Theintervention of this treatment includes motivational interviewing along with cognitive-behavioraltherapy. According to the research, this treatment is acceptable and feasible since an effectivereduction in substance usage has been reported in patients who are diagnosed with bipolardisorder with substance misuse. Apart from this, few evidences of improvement ofimpulsiveness, mood and symptoms were also found among service users.Barrowclough et al. (2010) argued that cognitive behavioral therapy and integratedmotivational interview for healthcare service users with substance misuse and psychosis arefound to be effect less in terms of symptom outcomes, hospitalization and functioning. Howeverthis therapy is found to be effective in reducing the tendency of substance abuse in patients for atleast one year after the complication of the therapy. According to a survey involving 327 serviceusers, it has been found that primary outcome of the therapy was death of a good number of
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