International Law Questions based Assignment
Added on - 21 Apr 2020
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QUESTIONS2Question 1War is a term which has many definitions, and a term which is marked with chaos andhas preposterous consequences. The question regarding the possibility of eliminating war or warbeing an inevitable feature of the international system is a constant source of debate, particularlybetween the different scholars supporting contrasting international theories. The two keycontrasting theories in this regard are that of liberalism and realism (Tudovic, 2015). This isfurthered by the developed of neo-liberalism and neo-realism. Followed by this is the theory ofconstructivism which provides another aspect to this debate. This discussion is focused on thisvery debate and would show that war is an inevitable aspect and would always be present in theinternational system.Liberalism is the very first international relations theory where an attempt was made togive a solution to the permanence of the war in the world. The Classic Liberalism makes thepromise where the democratic peace theory applies. In other words, the democracies do not fightin any manner, with each other. This results in the democracies of the world living without anywar. The merits of this theory, even in troubled circumstances were highlighted by ImmanuelKant, where he deemed the peace treaties as truces, and where the ultimate goal was to build upperpetual peace (Beddow, 2017). However, this theory has been criticized by the scholarssupporting realism. Merkel stated that this theory only referred to the consolidate democracies assuch democratic institutions carried on their way in the manner as has been described in thistheory. And he believed that this opened up another debate on the need of distinguishing betweena consolidated and an unconsolidated democracy (Hawkins, 2017).
QUESTIONS3The liberal theorists are of the view that global politics is based on the concept ofcooperation and harmony which means that war and conflict are not inevitable, but occur onlyfor particular reasons. The core of liberalism is stemmed in the belief of reasoning and progressas a possibility. The individuals are deemed as moral creatures in this viewpoint, who are not justpower seekers, making the liberals, believed that global politics could conform to the ethicaltheories instead of being passed on the political ones (Turner, 2013). The liberals also present thethree manners in which any war can be contained. The first manner is by allowing free tradewhich assists in the establishment of economic interdependence amongst different states, whichmakes war as an unimaginable notion. This is because of the established global understandingbetween the trading partners. Another aspect is that international institutions can be created inorder to make certain that the international rule of law is present, which would help in thereplacement of unstable balance of power politics in a system where there is collective security.Lastly, the democratic governments could also reduce the propensity of war as the democraticstates often use the techniques of negotiations and compromise to resolve a particular matter(Williams, 2013).Despite this standing, one cannot deny that war and conflict could still take place, as theyare associated with factors like imperial structures, authoritarian rule and the rise of economicnationalism, among the other things. Thus, a contrasting view presented by the realist theoristsproves to be of assistance. The view purported by the realist theorists is that war is a constantfeature of the international politics (Moffat, 2017). This is because the people are ethical flawedand narrowly selfish, and have the intention of attaining an advantage for themselves and indoing so, no regard is given to the needs of others. There is a lust for power in addition to thedesire of dominating others and these features are ineradicable from the human nature. This
QUESTIONS4means that the international politic comes down to the struggle of war, where there is a waragainst everyone. The key goal of each state is promotion of national interest where they try toattain relative gain in the international scenario. Thus, international politics is inevitably a kindof politics of power, where the war is used as the state policy’s instrument. The propensity isfurther strengthened through the anarchical nature of global system where without a powerfulstanding over the sovereign states, the states are forced to rely on self help for attaining security,owing to hostility, mutual fear and suspicion (Pashakhanlou, 2017). The anarchical system’sdynamics make the stability in long run, along with the cooperation at an international level, adifficult and almost impossible task to achieve. And even when there are temporary periods ofstability and peace, these are only carried to maintain the balance of power, which inevitably ishampered by one or other international incident (Elman & Jensen, 2014).Apart from these classic theories, there have been other theories which have contributedto the debate of war being inevitable or not. The classic theory of liberalism transitioned to theconcept of neo-liberalism, which came into being in the 1970s. As per this theory, the states arethe main actors in the global politics. This theory purports that the states continue to exist even inanarchy but they behave in a rational manner. This theory still covers the basics of liberalism,where the states are deemed to be interested in their own welfare and they cooperate with others,only to improve their gains (Blakeley, 2009). Yet, at the same time, they fear the sucker’s payoffand cheating. In terms of sucker’s payoff, as per this theory, the states fear that in order to benefitthem, another state can cheat them. And still, the focus remains on cooperating with each otherowing to the tragedy of commons. This theory states that for minimizing the loss, there is a needto collaborate with others. So, for avoiding a situation of war, the neoliberal institutions lower