Introduction to the Criminology | Study

Added on - 28 May 2020

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Running head: CRIMINOLOGYCriminologyName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1CRIMINOLOGYTable of Contents1.Introduction.................................................................................................................22.Background of the study.............................................................................................22.1.Background of the police role in reducing crime and disorder in 21stcenturyBritain.................................................................................................................................33.Rationale of the research............................................................................................44.Aims and Objectives of the Research.........................................................................45.Research question......................................................................................................56.Research methodology...............................................................................................56.1.Justification of secondary research methodology................................................56.2.Data collection method.........................................................................................56.3.Secondary data....................................................................................................66.4.Justification of using secondary data collection method......................................67.Research Limitations...................................................................................................88.Ethical considerations.................................................................................................9Reference list...................................................................................................................10
2CRIMINOLOGY1.IntroductionThe research focuses upon the gangs, serious youth violence and the manner inwhich the police as well as the media subject them to racialism in the twenty-firstcentury Britain. Youth violence refers to the violence committed by young people of 25years within the public/community space.The changing pattern in the lifestyles ofindividuals has not only brought about changes in the pattern of victimizations and crimebut also within the police services and beyond.(Crawford & Evans, 2017).A ‘gang’ maybe defined as a ‘relatively durable’ young people who are mainly characterized byyoung people are perceived to be a noticeable group that is involved in violence andcriminal activity. They are also considered as a group that are in conflict with each otheror other similar groups.The reasons behind serious youth violence may be attributed to the degree ofexposure to violence within the family, influence of peer group or impact of a communityon the offenders etc.Majority of the police work is hasty in nature that mainly focuseson incidents rather than being strategic and practical. There have not been adequateefforts to shift policing towards a more sustainable and effective approach in order toreduce crime and maintain order.2.Background of the studyTraditionally, the police departments have been supporting the law enforcementapproach to control crime that is achieved through emergency response, randompatrols, arrest, punishments, convictions that persists to govern the modern policingactivities.The emergence of institutionalism racism in the criminal justice system in UKhas been on a rise since 2012 portraying an unfair criminal justice system. The mediaemphasized on the disparities that are being formed in the retention and recruitment inthe police service, in the ‘stop and search’ method and the most in the accessibility ofvictims to justice against racist violence(Eck & Weisburd, 2015).It is pertinent to address such disparities to ensure a better life of the peopleespecially, the minority ethnic communities in the community, thus reinstating theirconfidence and trust in the criminal justice system of the country. However, such
3CRIMINOLOGYmeasures are not adequate to prevent the racial inequalities that are persisting in thesociety with respect to policing, prisons, crimes and resettlements.Although thisapproach is effective in reducing crime rates but it is equally imperative to adopt theright tactics, as merely relying on patrol in crime hotspots might not be sufficient to detercrimes and maintain order.The establishment of theMetropolitan Police’s Operation Trident in 1998andthe development of theManchester Action against Guns and Gangs (MAAGGs) in2001have conferred responsibilities upon the criminal justice teams and police torespond to the gangs. As the ‘gang’ is represented as weapon-enabled (gun and knife)criminal conduct and the commission of serious violent offenses.Further, thecommunities have a significant role to play as one of the crime reduction initiatives,commonly known as community policing and this concept of community policing isacceptable in the UK. Community policing provides reassurance to the public andenhances confidence in the police. However, the extent to which community policingsucceeds in ensuring sustained crime reductions is still ambiguous (Brinkmann, 2014).2.1.Background of the racialization of gangs and youth violence by policeand media in BritainMost often several reports on gang-related crimes and youth violence makesheadlines throughout the national and local newspapers as well as media outlets. As aresult, almost all the reported incidents regarding youth violence, which included eithera gun or a knife, taking place within the multi-ethnic urban locations of Britain, wereautomatically considered to have been committed by the menace of street gangs.Thelegitimacy of the police is pertinent to determine whether there is willingness in peopleto co-operate with the police that are usually evident from providing intelligence andreporting incidents, or acting as witness exhibiting compliance with law (Gill et al.,2014).The globalization of goods and services, the rapidly growing of new kinds ofcommunication, increasing income inequality and the division of communities andfamilies have given rise to new risks, threats and criminal opportunities. Therefore, it
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