# Introduction To Epidemiology (401076) Assignment

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The University of Western SydneySchool of Science and HealthIntroduction to Epidemiology (401076)ASSIGNMENT 1Spring, 2017Family name_First name_StudentID_Ass1

Q1.“In a health survey in a city neighbourhood 431 people aged 65 or above were examined, 52were found to have congestive heart failure. Each person was examined once, but the examinationwas staggered over a period of two years (given the sample was relatively big n=431)”a.“What was the prevalence of congenital heart failure?”[ Mark 2]Calculated using the formulae; Total number of cases/ total population52/431= 0.12Thus the prevalence of congenital heart failure is 0.12b.“Is it a point or period prevalence?”[ Mark 2]-This case represents pint prevalence as the population above 65 are are being examinedfor the condition.Q2. “This table presents the incidence rate IR (cumulative) and population size for two regions”“Which of the following statements are True (if Any) – explain your answer by calculation if needed”a.There were the same number of cases in both regions[mark 1]This statement is true , thus prevalence calculation will be arrived through;-Region A = 10/10000= 0.001-Region B = 5/5000= 0.001There is similarity of prevalence cases in both regionsb.There were twice as many cases in region A then region B[mark 1]FalseThere is similarity of both cases in both regions, however there is disparity in populationlevels in the ratio of 1:2c.The risk of incurring the disease during the year was about the same for individual in regionA as for those in region B[mark 1]The calculation for both regions is calculated through10/1000.1-While for region B is ;Region ARegion BPopulation size10,0005000IR of gastroenteritis10 per 1005 per 100

5/1000.05From the above calculations there is higher risk of getting the diseases in region A than B.d.The risk of incurring the disease during the year was twice as high for individuals in region Aas for those in region B.[mark 1]There is higher risks of getting in region A compared B, the ratio of regions A:B is 2:1, thusthere is higher risks of getting disease.Q3– “What will be the incidence rate of region A and Region B combined?[mark 4]The combined calculation of incidences rates will be calculated through the followingformula;-15/15000-0.001-Thus there is 1 case per 1,000 peopleQ4. “In an army base, where there is a complete change of personnel every 3 months and the totalbase is always 1000 (i.e., every 3 months 1000 new soldiers arrive and 1000 leave). It was found that2000 soldiers incurred syphilis every year. What is the yearly cumulative incidence of syphilis in thisbase? “[mark 2]The calculation will be calculated through proportions of people experiencing the outcome of thedisease-2000 cases/ (12 months/3 months intervalx1000)-2000/4000-½ (100%) = 50%-Thus cumulative incidence for the year is 50%Q5.“Now assume that in each three-monthly batch of 1000 soldier there were 250 soldiers whocontracted syphilis after exactly one month (let’s say on the payday) and another 250 who did soafter precisely two months”.a.Calculate the sum total of the soldiers’ period of exposure to risk (person-time) for use asdenominator[mark 2]In the first three month batch of 250 soldiers 4 monthly episodes and 250 soldiers who aregetting the disease after every 2 months which will give us 12months/2 monthsThe sum total of months experiencing exposure is 10 monthsb.Calculate the person-time incidence rate[mark 2]The calculation process for person time incidence rate is calculated throughFor the first batch is 250x (12/3) = 1000

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