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IntroductionGIS or Geographical Information Systemis a technological tool that helps to collectgeographic data and use it to plan and implement various developmental activities. It helpsto visualize spatial data, analyse and interpret it and understand patterns and relationshipbetween datasets. Visualizing and analysing data on maps has an impact on ourunderstanding of data helping us understand what belong where. By establishingrelationship between unrelated data, GIS can empower organizations and individuals tounderstand spatial patterns and relationships. Through GIS, a digital map can be createdwhich is of much more informative and valuable than the printed map on paper. This digitalversion of map can be collated with other datasets for interpreting and analyzinginformation through a graphical presentation. The GIS synthesizes large amounts differentinformation in datasets thus combining different layers of information to manage and applythe data for useful purposes.Application of GISGIS find its application in many areas. Such applications include socioeconomic andenvironment modelling, topographical mapping, education. GIS can be applied to answerlocation based questions such as what is located where or where to find particular features.GIS can be used to find how much is the forest area, habitat loss, urban sprawl etc. on theland use map. One can combine elevation data, land use data, river data and otherinformation to show information about the landscape of a particular area. From map onecan tell which is the best place to build house or which has the river view or where are highlands located. GIS helps to find new information.
Apart from such useful applications GIS is also an effective tool for finding solutions toproblematic areas of water resources. Experts use GIS to collate various data andinformation for useful applications for example managing water resources on a local orregional level and assessing water quality of a region.GIS water resource application in USASewer systems of many old cities of the world including USA are in critical stages ofdeterioration due to lack of maintenance and aging. Such deteriorated sewer infrastructureis leading to frequent sewer overflows In USA, many such cities are facing regulatorycompliance for such sewer overflows. In the light of regulatory compliance the governmentagencies are required to develop and implement sewer overflow control plans and carry outmapping, inspection, monitoring of rehabilitation plans. For regulatory compliance, thegovernment agencies are collecting and collating massive data and information on thecondition of sewer system and related inventories in cities. However, challenge lies in thecost effective management of this massive amount of data and monitoring the existing agingsewer system infrastructure.Fortunately, Geographic Information System (GIS) comes to rescue which is capable tomanage, interpret & analyze huge datasets. Integration of field inspection data with GISenables decision support system for the development of sewer rehabilitation plan. Thishelps in planning the rehabilitation required to control the sewer overflows.There are two critical steps in using GIS for regulatory compliance: (i) creating GIS maps ofthe sewer system and (ii) implementing a GIS-based inspection and maintenance program.Currently in USA a GIS-based inspection and maintenance of sewer system is done by usingcommercial GIS software that links the sewer inspection and defect information contained