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IntroductionMultimedia learning generally refers to the form of learning which is generally assistedby a numerous information sources and this are handled jointly so as to understand aw well asmemorizing the contents that are provided (Clark & Mayer, 2016). According to the cognitivetheory of multimedia learning it can be stated that whenever a student is presented with wordsand graphics, then they are capable of retaining the information at a higher level when a well-designed format is used.Um, E., Plass, J. L., Hayward, E. O., & Homer, B. D. (2012). Emotional design inmultimedia learning.Journal of educational psychology,104(2), 485.This paper mainly discusses the roles that are played by emotions in the process ofmultimedia learning. According to the authors, the cognitive load theory in which theemotion is considered to be an extraneous variable runs counter to this proposition. Dueto the fact that this variables interfere with the learning process so they should becontrolled. The article disagrees with the premises and along with this it also states in thehypothesis that “the use of design features to induce positive emotions in learners willresult in increased learning...and higher satisfaction with the learning experience”. Aresearch conducted amongst 118 undergraduate students, helps in understanding the factthat if aspects related to emotion are added then the experiences are much more positivewhen compared to the non-emotion design. The authors concluded to the fact whenpositive interactions are added by the designers to the multimedia presentation then thelearning process can have a much more positive influence. This positive integrationmight include providing of encouraging feedbacks and coaching for success.
Muller, D. A., Bewes, J., Sharma, M. D., & Reimann, P. (2008). Saying the wrongthing:improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions.Journal ofComputerAssisted Learning,24(2), 144–155.The article mainly consists of the summarization of the results of the six studies of theeye-tracking behavior of the learners and what are the possible ways of applying thosebehaviors on the design and the application of multimedia presentations so as to favor theprocess of learning. The main variables studied in this paper were “signalingeffect”,“prior knowledge effect”, and “modality effect”.The results of the study includedthe correlation between the “signaling effect”, “prior knowledge”, “modality variables”and “eye fixation time measurements”.More time is spent by the learners on focusing oncertain areas having maximum interest.Learning environments which is associated withthe utilization of contents related to multimedia should base theirdesignprinciples ofhow people would learn and what would be required materials for their learning.A wayof verifying the learning and design process have been provide by the reviews of the eyetracking studies.This articles and the studies which has been used as references in thispaper can provide valuablenew research evidence which are related to the use ofmultimedia learning techniques in online learning environments.Low, A. L. Y., Low, K. L. T., & Koo, V. C. (2003). Multimedia learning systems: a futureinteractive educational tool.The internet and higher education,6(1), 25-40.The planning, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the multimedialearning are discussed in this report. According to the author if the system is consideredto be pedagogically sound then it “requires well-planned and skillfully written content,attractive and functional graphic design and rapid implementation at a reasonable and
affordable cost”. The paper also consists of the discussion about the instructional designprocess for the construction of multimedia products. The main things included in thedescriptions are “needed analysis, learner analysis, content analysis, formativeevaluation, course framework design, and lastly the implementation”. The main focus ofthe pedagogic aspect is the satisfaction obtained from the learning objectives and alongwith this it also discusses how to “set the criteria for measuring the learning outcomes.”According to the authors an exemplary micro design is something which is “easy to use,interactive, stimulating, inspiring, and serves some practical purpose” and is consideredto be the overall aesthetics, interactivity, and functionality of the product.Evans, C., & Gibbons, N. J. (2007). The interactivity effect in multimedialearning.Computers & Education,49(4), 1147-1160.This is a study of the 33 university level students of the UK which is mainly associatedwith the testing for the presence of an interactivity effect present within a multimediapresentation. This interactivity effect main takes place when the multimedia products getadded up to the interactive element and this is followed by the engagement of the learnersin the process. Due to this reason, the learning experience tends to be much moresuccessful. In the experiment discussed in this paper, the participants were divided intotwo groups one of which was the control group and another one was the tested group.Followed by the division of the groups the researcher administrated a program which wascomputer-based and consisted of either an interactive or non-interactive element. Whenthe experiment was completed it was concluded that the “test scores suggest that addinginteractivity to a computer-based lesson increase[s] the depth of learning orunderstanding”.