Introduction to the Oligosaccharides

Added on - 28 May 2020

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Running head: OLIGOSACCHARIDES: THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST THESUPPLEMENTATION OF INFANT FORMULAOLIGOSACCHARIDES: THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST THE SUPPLEMENTATION OFINFANT FORMULAName of the StudentStudent IDWord Count: 2023
1OLIGOSACCHARIDES: THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST THE SUPPLEMENTATIONOF INFANT FORMULAExecutive SummaryThis report provides a description about the roles played by oligosaccharides in the health andwell-being of infants, when the infants are fed with infant formula supplemented with theseoligosaccharides. Some of these oligosaccharides used are fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides helped to increase the concentration of bifidobacteriaandlactobacilli, which in turn had a positive impact on the gut health of the infants. It alsohelped to prevent infections caused by pathogenic micro-organisms. Moreover, gut immunity,stool consistency and frequency among infants were also improved. Allergic reactions were alsofound to be reduced although significant data is unavailable and further research is needed tovalidate the initial findings.
2OLIGOSACCHARIDES: THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST THE SUPPLEMENTATIONOF INFANT FORMULATable of ContentsIntroduction......................................................................................................................................3Role of fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides in health and well-being of infants3Dosage and safety issues.................................................................................................................5Infant supplementation and critique................................................................................................5Regulatory policies..........................................................................................................................9Conclusion/Recommendation..........................................................................................................9Reference List................................................................................................................................11
3OLIGOSACCHARIDES: THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST THE SUPPLEMENTATIONOF INFANT FORMULAIntroductionOligosaccharides are short polymers of monosaccharides. Some of the dietaryoligosaccharides are fructo-, galacto- and mannan-oligosaccharides. Fructo-oligosaccharides aremade up of short fructose chains. Galacto-oligosaccharides consist of short chains of galactosemolecules. They are known to support the growth of bifidobacteria in the large intestine.Bifidobacteria is essential for the maintenance of gut health. Mannan-oligosaccharides areobtained fromSaccharomyces cerevisiaeand participate in immunomodulation and agglutination(Belorkar & Gupta 2016, p.82).Milk oligosaccharides protect infants by functioning as receptor homologues therebypreventing the attachment of entero pathogens on the host receptors. Gluco-oligosaccharides andmaltodextrin-oligosaccharides act as dietary fiber and helps to increase the bifidobacteriaconcentration in the infant faeces. However, infant food supplemented with oligofructose resultsin further increase in the concentration of bifidobacteria. This in turn helps to prevent colonicepithelial mucosa atrophy (Bode 2012, p.1147).This report at first describes the role of fructo-oligosaccharide and galacto-oligosaccharide in the well-being of infants. Next, the report carries out critical analysis ofresearch based on for and against of oligosaccharides in infant formula.Role of fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides in health and well-being ofinfantsHuman milk consists of high concentrations of oligosaccharides and other carbohydrates.Oligosaccharides are the third most abundant constituent present in human milk. Human milk
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