(PDF) Introduction to Psychology

Added on - 17 Feb 2021

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Psychology
Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................1MAIN BODY...................................................................................................................................1CONCLUSION................................................................................................................................3REFERENCES...............................................................................................................................4
INTRODUCTIONHuman body is highly complex in nature and responses related to it is hard to understand.To intrepretate it, psychology's important has emerged significantly. Psychology is the study ofmental process and human behaviour and why it reacts in a similar pattern. In this presentationclassical conditioning will be explained and its strengths and weakness with functional exampleof human being. Besides this cognitive model of human learning will also discussed.MAIN BODYClassical conditioning theoryThis theory has direct relation with behaviourism as it influences human behaviouraccording to different type of stimulus presents in front of them. It is discovered by Russianpsychologist Ivan Pavlov which shows the learning process in alliance with environmentstimulus and occurring stimulus. How classical conditioning work is elaborated below withfunctional examples,Before conditioning:This is the first phase of theory which states that unconditionedstimulus provokes unconditioned response though there is also neutral stimulus but it did notcreate any impact or neutral impact on response. For instance, children starts crying due to painof the needle when they visit hospital for the first time. In this unconditioned stimulus(UCS) isneedle and unconditioned response(UCR) is crying after getting needle and neutral stimulus(NS)is hospital.UCS is natural stimuli which automatically triggers UCR in human behaviour.During conditioning:In this phase neutral stimulus is unchangingly associate with UCSand which creates a relationship with both these factors in the mind of individual. After therelationship which has been formed in the starting, neutral stimulus transforms into conditionedstimulus(CS). For instance, if child is regularly visiting hospital and getting pain from the needlethen they will make a hypothesis that visiting hospital would definitely induced pain whichcreates a negative image of hospital in the mind of children. Concept of phobia is emerged fromthis theory.After conditioning:Once the kinship between UCS and CS is made in the mind ofchildren then it will unthinkingly summon response without even thinking for a second. Forinstance, if hospital name is ever listened by that children then it will spontaneously foster fear inbehaviour.1
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