KLEIN’S AND WINNICOTT’STHEORIESA Critical AnalysisABC[Pick the date]
KLEIN’S AND WINNICOTT’S THEORIES 1Melanie Klein was one of the most famous theorists during psychoanalytic movement. She is specialised in the psychoanalysis of children (Heimann et al, 2013).Winnicott is another leading Psychoanalyst who is well known in the field of some of the popular theories proposed by him.The most renounced theory are ‘a true self, false self, the good enough mother, transition objects’ etc. (Winnicott, D. W., 2013). In this assignment we will criticallyanalyse and the theories and M. Klein and Winnicott. The theories by Klein and Winnicott beautifully describe the unconscious and sub concisions emotions and phantasies. Winnicott was a paediatrician. He has studied psychoanalysis with Klein. He did accept the Klein theories but he viewed the key aspect of good relationships are actually rooted in the micro interaction with people.Klein has talked about the unconscious phantasies that underlie every mental process and accompany all the mental activity. According to her, there is a somatic representation of mental events (Klein, M., 2013). This theory was the extension and development of the Sigmund Freud’s understanding of the unconscious mind. As per Melanie Klein infants experience unconscious phantasy affects all the childhood interpersonal relations (Britzman, D. P., 2012). This theory has helped the psychologists that how the internal representation of unconscious phantasy plays an important role and how the individuals relate to others later in the life. In this, the objects which the individual come across are unconsciously interrogated interjected and later unconsciously projected onto others. This might cause a change in perception or an adulterated view of the other person. Our early childhood relationship establishes mental models or mental representation that an individual develops throughout its life (Segal, H. (2012). These mental models later impact the individual experience and new relationships but it is in an unconscious manner. Phantasy is a state of mind of an infant child during its early stage of development. These phantasies are mainly unconscious and they do not differentiate between the conscious
KLEIN’S AND WINNICOTT’S THEORIES 2realities. In the pre-lingual stage, a child is not able to distinguish between reality and imagination. Phantasies are a representation of genetic need and drives. As per (Steiner, 2016), they appear in symbolic form in dreams and in the plays of a child. Phantasy is contacted from internal and external reality. They are modified by different feelings and then they get projected into real as the world and the imaginary world. According to (Anderson, 2014), an infant makes sense of the external world through phantasies. Every new expression of an infant is firstly perceived and processed by the unconscious phantasy. They are throughout all the mental activities of the infant. Phantasy is the mental expression of both aggressive and libidinal impulses. Phantasies lead to anxieties. So, Winnicott talked about unthinkable anxieties which are the sense of going into pieces as a baby. The people shatter their embryonic ego. The developments that happen as child during the pre-verbal phase do not have a language but they remain implicit in memory. This memory that people have is not explicit. When the people grow as adults, it gets played in the minds as episodes. But, since these are laid down in the neural pathways, therefore, the rejection can be anticipated. As per (Lamothe, 2014), an infant’s dependence on her parent has been explained by Winnicott as passing through three stages of dependency – Absolute Dependence, Relative Dependence and towards Independence. In absolute dependence, the infant doesn’t yet separately identify herself from her parent. She doesn’t have enough experience yet to distinguish events or compare one type of caregiving to another. The infant gets parts of the care that are a good fit for her but has to endure those parts of the care that are a misfit to her needs (Winnicott, 2014). The above theory shows that Winnicott has interesting things to say about the certain featuresof infant-parent relationship which are most important, essentially the caregiving relationship
KLEIN’S AND WINNICOTT’S THEORIES 3and how it develops the infant as they go ahead. As per (Caldwell, 2014), this relationship is described by Winnicott as having three overlapping stages. During each of these stages, care takes different meanings than the one before. These stages are not distinct and do not have a definitive finish, with the infant and the caregiver swinging back and forth in overlapping stages. The stages are holding and care to give and to live together. These are stages stronglyoverlap each other. (Lamothe, 2014) says that this theory describes the satisfying parental care can be classified into three major overlapping stages. Firstly it is holding. A child is born with a tendency to hold things. That is the way the child studies the environment. Secondly, it is mother and infant living together. Here the father’s function as acting as an environment for the child hasnot been discussed. Thirdly the father, mother and infants all live together. So, though the infant is holding the mother initially later on it also comes under influence of father (Flynn, 2015) This gives rise to the term “paranoid-schizoid position” that describes a collection of defences, relation to the external objects and the anxieties (Flynn, 2015). This theory tell about the fantasies that are involved in the various processes during the childhood but that arenor regarded as probable. But, (Williams, 2016) has questioned that whether the activities related to fantasies can develop just from the mind or somewhere else? This position implies to many analysts that Klein viewed developmental advancing on basis of internal state. But, itwill be sophistically remote from the external world. (Kristeva, J., 2013).As per Klein schizoid ways of relating are never given up. The paranoid-schizoid position is afterwards followed by more mature depressive position. It is believed by (McIvor, 2015) that the paranoid schizoid state of mind in children is considered to be existing from birth to four to six months of age. This set of fantasies is based upon the view that the since the beginning,
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