Assignment on Theories by Klein and Winnicott

Added on - 20 Sep 2019

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KLEIN’S AND WINNICOTT’STHEORIESA Critical AnalysisABC[Pick the date]
KLEIN’S AND WINNICOTT’S THEORIES1Melanie Klein was one of the most famous theorists during psychoanalytic movement. She isspecialised in the psychoanalysis of children (Heimann et al, 2013).Winnicott is anotherleading Psychoanalyst who is well known in the field of some of the popular theoriesproposed by him.The most renounced theory are ‘a true self, false self, the good enoughmother, transition objects’ etc. (Winnicott, D. W., 2013). In this assignment we will criticallyanalyse and the theories and M. Klein and Winnicott. The theories by Klein and Winnicottbeautifully describe the unconscious and sub concisions emotions and phantasies. Winnicottwas a paediatrician. He has studied psychoanalysis with Klein. He did accept the Kleintheories but he viewed the key aspect of good relationships are actually rooted in the microinteraction with people.Klein has talked about theunconscious phantasiesthat underlie every mental process andaccompany all the mental activity. According to her, there is a somatic representation ofmental events (Klein, M., 2013). This theory was the extension and development of theSigmund Freud’s understanding of the unconscious mind. As per Melanie Klein infantsexperience unconscious phantasy affects all the childhood interpersonal relations (Britzman,D. P., 2012). This theory has helped the psychologists that how the internal representation ofunconscious phantasy plays an important role and how the individuals relate to others later inthe life. In this, the objects which the individual come across are unconsciously interrogatedinterjected and later unconsciously projected onto others. This might cause a change inperception or an adulterated view of the other person. Our early childhood relationshipestablishes mental models or mental representation that an individual develops throughout itslife (Segal, H. (2012). These mental models later impact the individual experience and newrelationships but it is in an unconscious manner.Phantasy is a state of mind of an infant child during its early stage of development. Thesephantasies are mainly unconscious and they do not differentiate between the conscious
KLEIN’S AND WINNICOTT’S THEORIES2realities. In the pre-lingual stage, a child is not able to distinguish between reality andimagination. Phantasies are a representation of genetic need and drives. As per (Steiner,2016), they appear in symbolic form in dreams and in the plays of a child. Phantasy iscontacted from internal and external reality. They are modified by different feelings and thenthey get projected into real as the world and the imaginary world. According to (Anderson,2014), an infant makes sense of the external world through phantasies. Every new expressionof an infant is firstly perceived and processed by the unconscious phantasy. They arethroughout all the mental activities of the infant. Phantasy is the mental expression of bothaggressive and libidinal impulses.Phantasies lead to anxieties. So,Winnicott talked aboutunthinkable anxietieswhich are thesense of going into pieces as a baby. The people shatter their embryonic ego. Thedevelopments that happen as child during the pre-verbal phase do not have a language butthey remain implicit in memory. This memory that people have is not explicit. When thepeople grow as adults, it gets played in the minds as episodes. But, since these are laid downin the neural pathways, therefore, the rejection can be anticipated. As per(Lamothe, 2014), aninfant’s dependence on her parent has been explained by Winnicott as passing through threestages of dependency – Absolute Dependence, Relative Dependence and towardsIndependence.Inabsolute dependence, the infant doesn’t yet separately identify herself from her parent.She doesn’t have enough experience yet to distinguish events or compare one type ofcaregiving to another. The infant gets parts of the care that are a good fit for her but has toendure those parts of the care that are a misfit to her needs (Winnicott, 2014).The above theory shows that Winnicott has interesting things to say about the certain featuresof infant-parent relationship which are most important, essentially the caregiving relationship
KLEIN’S AND WINNICOTT’S THEORIES3and how it develops the infant as they go ahead. As per (Caldwell, 2014), this relationship isdescribed by Winnicott as having three overlapping stages. During each of these stages, caretakes different meanings than the one before. These stages are not distinct and do not have adefinitive finish, with the infant and the caregiver swinging back and forth in overlappingstages.The stages areholdingand care to give and to live together. These are stages stronglyoverlap each other.(Lamothe, 2014) says that this theory describes the satisfying parental care can be classifiedinto three major overlapping stages. Firstly it is holding. A child is born with a tendency tohold things. That is the way the child studies the environment. Secondly, it is mother andinfant living together. Here the father’s function as acting as an environment for the child hasnot been discussed. Thirdly the father, mother and infants all live together. So, though theinfant is holding the mother initially later on it also comes under influence of father (Flynn,2015)This gives rise to the term “paranoid-schizoid position” that describes a collection ofdefences, relation to the external objects and the anxieties (Flynn, 2015). This theory tellabout the fantasies that are involved in the various processes during the childhood but that arenor regarded as probable. But, (Williams, 2016) hasquestioned that whether the activitiesrelated to fantasies can develop just from the mind or somewhere else? This position impliesto many analysts that Klein viewed developmental advancing on basis of internal state. But, itwill be sophistically remote from the external world. (Kristeva, J., 2013).As per Klein schizoid ways of relating are never given up. The paranoid-schizoid position isafterwards followed by more maturedepressive position. It is believed by (McIvor, 2015)thatthe paranoid schizoid state of mind in children is considered to be existing from birth to fourto six months of age. This set of fantasies is based upon the view that the since the beginning,
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