Landscape Architecture Assignment

Added on - 29 Apr 2020

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA1Landscape architecture refers to the designing of outdoor areas and structures that help toachieve social, aesthetic and environmental outcomes in a positive way. In order to attain thepositive aspects of landscape architecture, prevailing social, environmental, ecological conditionare thoroughly investigated so that the outcomes are met with the initial goals (Bull 2016). If onewishes to design landscapes in a successful way, then having a comprehensive idea about how itcame to be is essential to gain insights about how to use the different approaches and parametersof landscape architecture so that a balance between the social and the environmental can beestablished. Without a balance, no structure cannot be deemed successful.The architectural history of South Australia has evolved over time and gradually. It hasdistinct characteristics and distinguishable from other parts of the country. The architecture ofSouth Australia can be divided into six chronological categories: Old Colonial to 1840, Victorianto 1890, Federation to 1915, Interwar, Postwar and the Late Twentieth Century from 1960(Beynonet al.2014). These different times can be looked into to better understand the trends ofSouth Australian architecture so that the distinct characteristics of the region’s architecture canbe given a proper idea.Australia’s architecture has always kept a pace with its historical economic patterns. Justlike the country’s financial and other social parameters, the architecture of Australia has alsogone through periods of prosperity and then periods of contraction. Cycles of excellence ofdecadence has been experienced, but despite the fluctuating behaviour the architecture of thecountry has always remained of importance (Leach 2013). The humble beginnings of thecountry’s architectural history have always had an impact on the later affluent times. The overallgoodness of the country’s people and its roots have made sure that whatever happens, happens
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA2for a good reason and this sense of something good has lasting impacts during the periods ofarchitectural appreciation.All of the country’s history has not been glorious or even something to be proud on, iffacts and past behaviour are to be acknowledged. When the British came to the country, theywere only focused upon occupying the lands and take the aborigines out of their own lands(Jacobset al.2016). The British told themselves that the native people of Australia were nomadsand they did not reside in any structured homes, rather they were hunter-gatherers, in order tovalidate their actions against the aborigines. The atrocious behaviour did manage to get thecountry under British occupation and they became the primary owners of the lands. These self-assurances formed the very basis of the British policy of “terra nullius”, which almost legalisedthe taking over of the native lands as the British saw fit (Kinniburgh, Crosby and Hromek 2016).It is only recently that archeological findings and research has proved that the native people ofAustralia were not only hunter-gatherers, but they built sheltered homes as well. Moreover, theyalso had stores where they sold their crops and other produce. The indigenous people also usedto build dams, manage lands, knew the use of wells and learned how to sow the lands (Wallisetal.2017). The social structures, cultures, lifestyle choices and climate of each of the indigenousgroups and tribes were the deciding factor behind their architectural distinctions andcharacteristics. Though most of the houses that were built were made of canes or other similarproducts, there were also houses that used sandstones as the prime material. The Europeanforeigners ignored the architecture of the aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islander people (Bruceet al.2015). All across Australia, diverse forms of architectural characteristics were noticed.When the British arrived, the first government buildings were reflections of Europeanarchitectural norms and styles, which derived most of its influences from contemporary British
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA3structures. Georgian architecture was one of the most notable styles that flourished during thisearly times of the British occupation. Another European style that gained popularity in the 19thcentury was the Gothic Revival. Gothic ornamentation, pointed arches, battlements and othersimilar architectural traits were found in many buildings including churches, banks, universitybuildings and even in residential homes. In the mid-19thcentury, with the emergence of theAustralian gold rush, came bands of people in search of fortune and prosperity. With them camea surge of Victorian architecture (Guanet al.2014). During this time, Italian architecture alsohad major reflections in the architecture of Australia. This specific style became very popular asit gave the scope for richer display of prosperity. In the later part of this period, buildings werebecoming burdened with too many columns, lavish decorations and spectacular entrances. Thiswas later to be identified as the Boom style.As stated before, the Australian architecture has been consistent with the generalarchitectural trends of the Western world. To adjust to the climatic conditions of the country,some specific and necessary adjustments had to be made and special designs were adapted.However, during the early British days, the country’s new structures were all highly, andprimarily, influenced by the British designs. In more recent times, the Australian architecture hasreflected a more Americanised urban designing. The increasingly multicultural Australiansociety has made designs and other structure to become highly diversified.Australian architects have built some of the most notable buildings on the plants, like theSydney Opera House, designed by Jorn Utzon, and the new Parliament House, which wasdesigned by Romaldo Girgola. Influence of climate on Australia’s buildings can be noticed inrural structures like the Queenslander. The region’s history and identity have also shaped thecountry’s architecture. Even if the country’s distinct architectural form started to build during the
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