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Human Nervous System & Endocrine System Assignment PDF

Added on - 14 Jun 2021

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Last Name1Human Nervous System & Endocrine SystemByProfessors NameCourse code & NameDate
Last Name2The Human Nervous System and Endocrine SystemIntroductionThe nervous system helps collect, process, as well as respond to information viaelectric signals. It comprises of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.On the other hand, the endocrine system helps in regulation. It releases hormones that travelsvia the blood stream and also controls the action of organs and cells. The rationale of thisreport is to explain how the systems coordinate functions of different systems in the humanbody and how such relates to homeostasis.The Human Nervous SystemA reflex is a simple, quick form of activity in the nervous system. It’s an involuntary responseto the stimulus. The reflex arc is the neuron which forms a trail of the impulses of the reflex.Some of the reflex actions include eye blinking, breathing, plus other protective actions likedrawing a finger out of a hot flame as shown below.
Last Name3When a finger is drawn from a hot flame a withdrawal reflex is done. The stages of the reflexaction are as presented below. First, the finger is a receptor which has the sensory neuronsthat transmit the impulses to the sensory nerves found in the dorsal root. Next the relaytransmits the impulses from the vertebral column to the motor neurons found in the ventralroot, where another neuron carries the impulse to the brain. A motor neuron carries theimpulses to the muscle where the finger is drawn away. Here, the impulses reach the brainand a person feels the pain.Types of Neurons.A neuron is defined as a specialized cell within the cell body, the largest part which hascytoplasm and nucleus. A majority of metabolic activity of the cell such as the production ofadenine triphosphate and production of proteins takes place in the cell body (Beloozerova,Sirota & Swadlow, 2003, p.1087). The dendrites plus the entire cell body surface which arethe nerve cell receptive apparatus and also take impulses from the environment. The axon isprotected by an insulating sheath of myelin in animals without vertebral column as well assome vertebrates and carries impulses from the cells body Neurons can take different shapesdepending on their location as well as function (Beloozerova, Sirota & Swadlow, 2003,p.1087). The functional types of neuronsare sensory neurons, motor neurons, and
Last Name4interneuronsand they are represented in the reflex arc below.Sensory/afferent neurons; are bipolar/multipolar/unipolar shaped cells used toconduct action potentials into the central nervous system (CNS). They have long dendritesplus short axon where the cell body and the dendrite are found outside the spinal cord whilethe cell body is found in the dorsal root ganglion. They take somatic nervous system signalsfrom the skeletal muscles, joints, the skin, and sensory organs (Beloozerova, Sirota &
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