Pathogenesis Report | Left Sided Heart Failure

Added on - 03 Mar 2020

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Running head: LEFT SIDED HEART FAILURE1Left Sided Heart FailureStudent’s NameUniversity Affiliation
LEFT SIDED HEART FAILURE2Concept MapClinical ManifestationsLow urine productionShortness of breathRapid and irregular pulseWeight gain due to fluid retentionPalpitationsAcute dyspnoeaWeakness, fatigue and faintness[ CITATION Kem12 \l 1033 ]CausesDrinking excessivealcoholHeart attackInfections of the heartmusclesHypothyroidismHigh blood pressureNarrow or leaking heartvalves[ CITATION Paz12 \l 1033 ]PathogenesisLeft sided heart failure changes in bloodvolume, vascular function as well asneurohumoral status.Low supply of oxygenated blood leads toa deficit. Ventricular myocardiumexperiences strain as it strives to compensatethe demand for oxygenated blood.Continuous strain on the heart musclesincapacitates the heart’s ability to pumpadequate blood to other body parts.Sympathetic Nervous System triggered tosecrete hormones by the pressure receptors ofthe aorta.Pressure in the left ventricle of the heartcauses fluid accumulation in the lungs whichinhibits gaseous exchange. Severeshortness of breath consequently occurs.ManagementGoals of managing left sided heart failureMinimizing symptomsReducing stress of the heart,Treating the infection that iscausing heart failurePreventing death.Treatments might include:Pharmacotherapyis the first formof treatment for left-sided heartfailure.The drugs are diuretics are ACE,aldosterone antagonists, betablockers, digoxin and hydralazinehydrochloride.[ CITATION Ina16\l 1033 ]Surgery to unclog blocked heartarteries.Left Sided Heart FailureDiagnostic proceduresPhysical examinationDisclose a rapid or irregular heartbeat.Detecting unusual heart motionLaboratory TestsElectrocardiogram (ECG)Chest x-rayCoronary angiographyHeart stress testEchocardiogram (ultrasound of theheart)Blood tests to examine kidney andliver functionAn MRI[ CITATION Ina16 \l 1033 ]CourseStage A:Detecting heart failure atthis stage is difficult. It isprimarily linked to individualswith a history of heart failure. Theinitial level in which a personfaces frequent fatigue.Stage B:The individual facesshortness of breath and bloodpressure starts to rise. Theventricular walls starts toweakeningStage C:Signs of heart failure areevident and in this stage thePrognosisLeads to early death.Chances of fullrecovery are minimal.Patients remain stablewith medicationPreventionRegular exercisesLosing weightLow salt dietReducing alcohol intakeQuitting smokingEating low fat foodsGetting sufficient sleepAvoiding stressful events[ CITATION Ina16 \l 1033 ]
LEFT SIDED HEART FAILURE3Left Sided Heart Failure: Questions1: PathogenesisMrs. Brown presented with acute dyspnoea, rapid pulse rate, high blood pressure,increased breath rate andauscultation of lungs characterized by bilateral basal crackles. Leftheart sided failure can be diastolic or systolic.Left sided heart failure occurs due to anineffective left ventricular contractile function[ CITATION Cra15 \l 1033 ]. Right-heart failure orright-sided heart disease might also cause left-sided heart failure. A decrease in right ventricularoutput diminishes blood return to the left ventricular, which causes left ventricular strokevolumeto decrease[ CITATION Lil12 \l 1033 ]. Oxygenated blood is received in the left atrium from the lugsbefore it is pumped by the left ventricular into the systemic circulation.Thus, when the capacity of the left side of the heart to pump blood to all the body parts isincapacitated, the body gets insufficient oxygen[ CITATION And14 \l 1033 ]. As a result, pressurebuilds up in the pulmonary vein. Congestion of the pulmonary vein occur leading to theaccumulation of fluid in the lungs. Accumulation of fluid in the lung can lead to pulmonaryembolism[ CITATION Kat14 \l 1033 ]. Shortness of breath, a rapid heart rate, and chest pain are thecommon symptoms of this condition which were evident in Mrs. Brown.Left-sided heart failure causes a substantial burden for patients and is thus a lifethreatening condition. As pressure mounts on the left ventricle of the heart, the myocardiumweakens progressively. Myocardium in the left side of the heart loses the ability to pumpadequate oxygenated blood out of the left ventricle[ CITATION Mar16 \l 1033 ]. This conditionescalates to a level where the heart muscles are completely unable to pump oxygenated bloodfrom the left ventricle. As a result, vital body organs like the brain fail to receive oxygenated
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