Literature Review on Cinematography

Added on - 18 Sep 2019

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Literature Review on Cinematography
Literature ReviewThe cinema word is derived from the Kinema-toscope which comes from the Greek word Matoswhich means the science of pure motion. The ancestors of cinema start millennia before the birthof Jesus Christ and then culminating in the final decade of the nineteenth century. According tothe (Norman et al., 2014), the motion pictures was started when the when the projector, primitivecameras reaches the place where the projected image has started the movement. The inventionsin the motion pictures have been invented by many people. Some people are interested in therecording of pictures whereas other are interested in capturing the projected images. In the year1830, the revolving disks and drums are used for producing the moving images and the inventionwas independently done by the Simon Von Stampfer in the country Austria, William Horner inBritain and Joseph Plateau in Belgium. The Francis Ronald's has invented the successful camerawhich records continue video of the varying indications of geomagnetic and meteorologicalinstruments within the particular period of time. In the twenty century, the camera still remainedin use, and it was supplied around the world after the successful invention.In the year 1867, the device was patented by the William Lincoln and the device showedanimated picture, named wheel of zoopraxiscope. The slit is used to watch the moving pictures.A horse named Sallie Gardner is photographed by the Eadweard Muybridge in the year 1873 byusing the series of 24 stereoscopic cameras. The arrangement of the camera was made along theparallel track, and the tripwire trigger is used to control the shutter of the camera through thehorse's hooves (Ochoa et al., 2012). They were twenty-one inches in length apart to cover thetwenty feet which are taken by the horse stride, and pictures are taking at one thousandth of a
second. But it was never played at speed to develop the motion, so it was the first step which istowards the motion pictures.In the nineteenth century till early twentieth century the use of film has increased for thescientific exploration as well as entertainment purpose. The Jean Painleve and French biologisthave influenced the use of film in the scientific field because the new medium was more efficientin behaviour documenting and capturing, bacteria, cells, the environment of microorganism andmovement. The aim of using the film in the scientific field is to view the images in the real-timeand not only to view the new images. The hand drawn sketches of anatomy by the humans areused by the doctors and scientists before the invention of moving pictures. The earliest survivingmotion picture in the year 1888 was filmed by the Louis Le Prince in England which was theexperimental film, named, Roundhay Garden Scene. It is the type of paper film. The successfulapparatus was designed by the W.KL. Dickson in the year 1891 under the direction of ThomasAlva Edison, and the name of the apparatus was kinematograph which was patented in the year1891 (Gibelli et al., 2016).According to the research, in the year 1877, the speed of photographic emulsion and the shutterof cameras have been improved which make possible to take the instant motions. The Muybridgeand Marey are such types of innovators who were interested in the motions than the photography(Ullman et al., 2013). The wonderful inventions took place with the span of time with continuedexperiments in the stop action actions and the analysis of motion studies. Eadweard Muybridgewho was the bookseller has turned into a photographer and studied the gait of running horses,and he used twelve cameras which were set up in the racetrack in California with the electricshutter controls. The movement of living thing was studied by the Etienne-Jules in the year 1882.According to the research in the middle nineteenth century, the photographs have replaced the