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LITERATURE REVIEWThis additionally comprise as the best piece of research project which helps in leadingan investigation in conducting an in-depth analysis as to drawing a valid and effectiveoutcome of the research work. This segment gives a theoretical structure which is compellingin investigating the research issue in viable way by deciding the assessment of differentwriters and journalists. In this part information and data is assembled through secondarysources, for example, books, journals, past records, past research work, daily paper and so on.This part is effective in developing a potential theoretical frame which provides properanalysis on a specified research issue.The major drivers for high staff turnoverAccording to Aarons et al, (2012) staff of a company are the key elements that arerequired to perform all the operational activities. If a company has excess staff then it mayhave to bear higher cost for the same amount of work. Hence it is very important for abusiness to control and reduce staff turnover as well as analyse the cost which has beeninvested to acquire the staff (Lambert, 2013). It is vital for any type of firm to maintainemployee turnover effectively and efficiently(Charan, 2011). It is the responsibility of themanagers to place right employees on right place as it can lead the organisation towardsuccess by enhancing productivity and profitability (Bedarkar and Pandita, 2014). In TopsDay Nurseries workers numbers are maintained by analysing the needs and requirement ofthe company and then selecting the areas where employees need to be controlled. It isessential for the company to attain competitive advantage by identifying growth opportunitiesreference. There are two different theories that may be implemented by Tops Day Nurseriesin order to reduce employee turnover and to analyse exact cost involved in the operationalactivities:Staffing theory: The theory of 5MsAccording to Whitt (2013), it is a mixture of five different elements that are requiredfor a company to control staff turnover. It explores the effects of behaviour settings in whichit is analysed that organisation is overstaffed or understaffed. Over staffing is situation inwhich company needs to control its employees and reduce the staff turnover. In the situationof under staffing company is not having proper employees to perform all the organisationalactivities and there is a requirement of hiring new employees.Currently top day nurseries are in the situation of over staffing and now it is required toreduce its employee turnover. This is possible with the proper management of human
resources within the organisation and managers who are liable for the same. Staffing theorycan help to reduce the staff turnover as there are five different elements in this theory that aremanpower, machine, materials, method and management. A proper managed staff on anorganisation can help it to achieve goals and objectives and help to reach to the missions.Management and reduction is possible when company will hire eligible and well educatedstaff and follow a proper hiring procedure to select a candidate(Crouch and Keune, 2012). Itis essential for Nurseries to follow management principle in order to manage its staffturnover. These principles are proper division of work among employees, discipline at workplace, unity of direction and command, appropriate remuneration to the work force,incentives and other benefit and a proper recruitment process that can help to reduceemployee turnover. Staffing theory is based on following elements these can increase staffturnover as well as help to reduce the same:Manpower:It is a group of employees who are hired by the company to enhance itsproductivity. It is very important for Tops Day Nurseries that it should follow an appropriateformat to hire employees for the organisation .This step will help to reduce and controlemployee turnover and this will result in high and increased productivity and profitability.Organisational growth totally depends upon the workforce and if the level of the workforceexcess from normal than company has to bear extra cost as well as it can result in lowproductivity.Machine:It is a type of equipment which is used by companies to run its operationseffectively and easily. If company is having high amount of equipments and hiring moreworkers to effectively use the machines this can result in high employee turnover which canbe reduced if company only buys required equipment rather than buying high amount ofmachines.Material:Material can be explained as raw material which is required to make aproduct. If Nurseries are having excess amount of material than it has to hire moreemployees to work(Lis, 2018). This can increase staff turnover and if company is can controlits material activities than it can be reduced.Method:It is process which is related to the hiring procedure of employees. Ifcompany is not following a proper method to hire employees and hiring skilled as well asunskilled employees than the staff turnover of the company will be increased to a higherlevel. It can be reduced if company hire only skilled employees and fire or not selectunskilled employees(Brennan et. al., 2012).
Management:According to Hogan, Chamorro-Premuzic and Kaiser,(2013) ifmanagement system of an organisation is not good and managers are not able to handle allthe management activities than organisation may have to face various issues includingincreased employee turnover. This problem can be resolved with the proper management oforganisation.Costing theory:According to Mu, Jiang and Leng (2017) Costing theory is a way to analyse costimplication within the organisation. In this theory two types of costs are analysed that arefixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs are unchangeable and do not vary with theproduction units but variable costs always vary with the production. This theory is mainlyused by Tops Day Nurseries to analyse cost implication on whole organisation. Followingfactors can help to analyse cost implications:Voluntary or involuntary turnover:Voluntary turnover is a type of turnover, whenemployees of the organisation choose to leave their positions willingly for other capableemployees or they may be not satisfied with their job role(Elfer, 2013). In involuntaryturnover employees are terminated from their positions. Voluntary turnover can be morecostly for the organisation as company have to bear cost of recruiting and selecting newemployees to fill positions. This increases cost and expenditures for the company.Demographic factors:It is mainly related to the workers of Tops Day Nurseries whoare women rather than men. If company will not find suitable female for the job than it mayhave to pay more amount to the candidate who is suitable for the job.Job satisfaction:According to Roy, 2017 if employees are not satisfied with their jobthan they may switch to other. If the workers are well educated and company want to retainthem than it can offer them higher salary so it is essential for the organisation to make satisfytheir employees with their job profile.Management accounting pricing:According to Habib, Uddin Bhuiyan and Islam,2013 pricing is the main decision which needs to be taken by the management of theorganisation. If appropriate decision are not taken than it may result in increased cost ordecreased customer's interest.Price should be on a balanced level as this should not be toolow leads to high demand but low profitability, it should not be too much high because willgive high profit but low in demand (Finegold, 2013) .If customers are not attracting to theservices provided by Tops day Nurseries than the cost invested on the employees and otherfactors may be increased for the company and harm its profits.
Supervision:Employees are required to worked under supervision because this candirect them to perform their duties accurately. If they are not supervised than there is apossibility of decreased effectiveness of the company and dissatisfaction of the customers.This can increase the cost of the company as they may have to hire another employees byterminating current employees because they are not able to work effectively(Guntur,Haerani and Hasan, 2012).Work life conflict:According to Henly and Lambert, 2014,Various conflicts maytake place in work life it is essential for an organisation to use effective methods to resolvesuch type of conflicts. For example if there are various conflicts among employees andmanagers of Tops Day Nurseries than this may result in high cost of employment to thecompany because in this situation employees may will to quit.Environmental factors:According to Wang, Chen and Chen, 2012, There arevarious environmental factors that may affect profitability and effectiveness of the company.These factors are climate change, change in the preference of customers and other. Suchfactors may affect a company directly or indirectly. If there is a change in liking of customersthan Tops Day Nurseries may have to bear more cost to attract customers(Klettner, Clarkeand Boersma, 2014).Career growth opportunities:It is a motivating factor for the employees to grabcareer growth opportunities and it is a liability of the company to provide variousdevelopment chances to its employees to motivate them to enhance work quality. If they arenot having such types of opportunities than they will not work effectively and company mayhave to bear losses due to this reason.Rewards:It is a type of monetary motivating factors for employees to increase theireffectiveness. It is provided employees to appraise them for their good performance it createsan urge in employees to work harder. It can save cost for the company as workers will workeffectively and efficiently(Taipaleenmäki and Ikäheimo, 2013).Both the above mentioned theories can help Tops Day Nurseries to measure higherstaff turnover, reduce the same and analyse cost implications. These theories can help themanagers of the company to take right actions to enhance organisation's profitability.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThis part of the investigation includes various applications which provides properguidance to research for completion of research work in more appropriate manner. Theresearcher is held responsible to consider all research methodologies and select moreappropriate one in order to draw a valid and reliable outcome.Type of InvestigationIt is considered as most important part of research methodology as it is theresponsibility of researcher to analyse the nature of research work so that proper investigationactivities can be implemented in an appropriate manner. A research consists of two types i.e.Qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research mainly emphasis on the data collectedthrough qualitative means which indicates that if the research is based on human perceptionand feelings then such qualitative research is more appropriate to adopt. On the other hand,Quantitative research mainly emphasis on collection of data through using statistical andquantitative tools. The present research is based on the interest and working behaviour ofstaff due to which the researcher has adopted qualitative research and it will be conducted bythe adoption of qualitative research methods(Peisert, 2015).in this particular research workqualitative research method is appropriate for detail analysis of the research issue. Qualitativeinvestigation provides proper detail investigation on the specified area of study with properevaluation of the study. Qualitative research is conducted in a natural setting and involves aprocess of building a complex and holistic picture of the phenomenon of the particularinterest. The present investigation is based on the influence high staff turnover on theperformance of nurseries. Qualitative investigation is appropriate for providing detailedanalysis by evaluating the opinion and perception of people.Research DesignIt is considered as a blueprint for the exploratory as it defines the strategies which areadopted in conducting research. It consists of different types of designs which includesDescriptive, exploratory and experimental research design (Lewis, 2015). In the present studyof research, descriptive research design has been opted by the researcher as it help indescribing every aspects of research in detailed manner. Thus, it is more appropriate researchdesign which is suitably implemented on the qualitative method due to providing briefdescription about the issues of research.The research into consideration is based on theimpact of high staff turnover on the business operation of Nurseries. In this descriptiveresearch design has been applied by researcher as it is effective in conducting detailed
analysis for the chosen area of study. This method is effective in providing appropriativeanalysis on completion of the work in proper manner thus is this a proper theoreticalframework is provided as to determining the research issue in effective way.Research PhilosophyIt is also considered as an important part of research methodology. It is a belief that isassumed by the research for the purpose of carrying out the research in right direction. Itconsists of two types such as Interpretism and positivism research philosophy (Onwuegbuzieand Frels, 2013). In the current research, Interpretivism philosophy has been selected as itfacilitate researcher to conduct qualitative research in more systematic manner with the briefdescription of research issue(Philpott, 2014).Research ApproachThis is the part of research methodology which determine the researcher's perceptionwhile carrying out the research work. There are different approaches which can be adoptedby the researcher to support their view and perception related with the issue of research. Itincludes inductive and deductive approach (Sultan and Yin Wong, 2013). In the present studyof research, inductive research approach has been opted by the research which enable him todraw a valid and reliable outcomes to achieve the objectives of qualitative research.Methods of Data collectionData collection is more crucial and important aspect of research work. The researchhas to collect data related with the content of research work through different sources whichincludes primary and secondary.Primary data:The data which is collected for the very first time through usingvarious methods such as surveys, interviews, or experiments is called as primary data.Secondary data:The data which has been already collected or produced by others andcan be obtained through using books, newspapers, magazines, online portals etc. is known assecondary data.In the present research work, both primary and secondary data has been undertaken bythe researcher to draw a valid conclusion. Primary information is accumulated throughpreparing questionnaire which contains relevant questions related with the issues described inpresent research(Siqueira and et. al., 2014).It is more reliable and accurate method of datacollection which makes easy for researcher to determine the opinion of various respondentsbut consumes more time. On the other hand, secondary information is accumulated throughusing books, online portal etc. which makes easy for research to analyse the views and