Make sure to list any references you use in doing this mid-term

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Make sure to list any references you use in doing this mid-term exam.Must Answer All 5 QuestionsYour answers must contain sufficient detail. Answers that consist of a few sentences willnot be given credit.1.Conceptualize, operationalize and come up with a variable(s) to measuretwo of thefollowing concepts: religiosity, affluence, stress, or education. Each of the three stepsmust be presented under its own subheading:Conceptualization: There is no standard definition of stress but when there is a tension, pressure,strain, anxiety, hopelessness, helplessness causing detrimental effects on people livelihoods iscalled stress. It demands the positive regard from all the professionals around the world. Theconcept of stress is incomplete, and there have been many theoretical explanations of stress inthe development of its sociological model. Education can be conceptualized as the amount oftraining and knowledge acquired during the school.Operationalization: By operationalization, we mean defining certain variables into measurablefactors. The stress can be measured by the score of Perceived Stress Scale. Stress in an individualcan be operationalized by asking the people to give a public speech and also by giving an answerto a simple questionnaire by rating from scale -5. The operationalization of education could bedone by assigning a value to the education level.Variables: The variable for stress in the organizations may be due to a highly stress orientedposition in the business consisting of a hectic schedule, it can be caused by an imbalance
between personal and professional life resulting ineffective work. Infrastructural lacuna alsoembarks the work inefficiency leading to stressful life. In the education, the variable can be thelocation of study, the field of study and certificates. It also depends on seniority, religiosity, andideology.2.List 4 separate hypotheses and identify the independent variables, dependent variablesand the direction of the relationship (for example: does the independent variable have anincreasing effect on the dependent variable or does it have a decreasing effect on thedependent variable, or does it have no effect on the dependent variable).The four hypothesis can be1.The higher is the availability of affordable housing, the lower is the homeless rate.In this statement Affordable housing is an independent variable while homelessrate is dependent and if the affordable housing increases the effect on rate ofhomeless decreases, therefore it is having decreasing effect.2.The better is the availability of Math tutoring, the better are the Math grades.In this statement Math tutoring is an independent variable while Math grades aredependent and if the Math tutoring increases the Math grades increases, thereforeit’s having increasing effect.3.The higher is the presence of police patrol, the lower is the crime.In this statement Presence of Police Patrol is an independent variable while crimeis dependent and if the Presence of Police Patrol increases the crime declines,therefore it is having decreasing effect.4.The better electricity supply at the factory lighting, the more is the productivity.
In this statement Electricity supply is an independent variable while productivityare dependent and if the Electricity supply increases the Productivity increases,therefore it’s having increasing effect.3.What is a theory in social science? Do social science theories differ from those in thephysical sciences? From the book chapter on social theories please identify a theory andstate that theory in your own words. Explain what the theory attempts to say in your ownwords.The theory of social science states that set of interlinked notions, descriptions, andschemes explaining or prophesizing the occasions or conditions by postulating variablerelations defines the social behavior. There can be two types of theories one isexplanatory, and other is related to change. They have different emphasize but arecomplementary to each other. The differentiation between physical and social science isdifficult, and it needs the knowledge to understand them well to make the distinction.Social science is an open system primarily deals with the socio-cultural aspects of humanbeings and their relationships with the society while physical science is a closed systemdealing with the artificial world i.e. non-living aspects, including the matter properties,behavior under the presence of certain forces, etc. Social science is vital in studyinghuman behavioral changes. The data obtained from physical science is experimentalwhile that in social science is experiential. The experimental data is obtained fromrepeated experiments, testing and through reproducible results while experiential data isassumptive and based on assumptions.

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