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Running head: MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
marketing research analysis
Low cost carrier
marketing research analysis
Low cost carrier
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MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS 1
Table of Contents
1.0 Research method...................................................................................................................2
1.1 Subject...............................................................................................................................2
1.2 Research Instrument..........................................................................................................2
1.2.1 Survey Planet.............................................................................................................2
1.2.2 IBM SPSS..................................................................................................................3
1.3 Question design.................................................................................................................3
Price factor...............................................................................................................................5
Convenience factor..................................................................................................................6
Service factor...........................................................................................................................6
1.4 Data collection method.....................................................................................................8
1.5 Research hypothesis and Statistical Analysis...................................................................9
1.5.1 Paired sample Ttest..................................................................................................9
1.5.2 Regression................................................................................................................11
1.6 Assumptions....................................................................................................................11
3.7 Limitation............................................................................................................................12
4.0 Result of the study...................................................................................................................12
4.1 Hypothesis testing................................................................................................................12
5.0 Discussion................................................................................................................................15
6.0 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................16
6.1 Managerial values from ttest analysis................................................................................16
References......................................................................................................................................17
Appendix........................................................................................................................................17
Table of Contents
1.0 Research method...................................................................................................................2
1.1 Subject...............................................................................................................................2
1.2 Research Instrument..........................................................................................................2
1.2.1 Survey Planet.............................................................................................................2
1.2.2 IBM SPSS..................................................................................................................3
1.3 Question design.................................................................................................................3
Price factor...............................................................................................................................5
Convenience factor..................................................................................................................6
Service factor...........................................................................................................................6
1.4 Data collection method.....................................................................................................8
1.5 Research hypothesis and Statistical Analysis...................................................................9
1.5.1 Paired sample Ttest..................................................................................................9
1.5.2 Regression................................................................................................................11
1.6 Assumptions....................................................................................................................11
3.7 Limitation............................................................................................................................12
4.0 Result of the study...................................................................................................................12
4.1 Hypothesis testing................................................................................................................12
5.0 Discussion................................................................................................................................15
6.0 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................16
6.1 Managerial values from ttest analysis................................................................................16
References......................................................................................................................................17
Appendix........................................................................................................................................17
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS 2
1.0 Research method
The research method is used to conduct the research. In this chapter, various research
method is used to test the theoretical framework which is represented and discussed.
Various types of research method are used for evaluating why people chose the lowcost
carrier. (Bowen G. A. et.al.,2009).
1.1 Subject
The subject of this chapter is to analyze the situation of why people chose the lowcost
carrier and the various types of methods for evaluating it. Survey planet and SPSS
(Statistical package for the social science) are research methods used to determine the
importance of Lowcost carrier and why people prefer to use the lowcost airline for
serving their traveling purpose.
1.2 Research Instrument
Research instrument is a type of measurement tool which is formulated to get data. In
this research paper, research instruments are used to find out the how many people uses a
lowcost carrier, the main reason for choosing the lowcost carrier and the purpose of the
study. It is determined with the help of questionnaire and survey method
The research instrument used in the research study is surveying planet and SPSS that is a
Statistical package for the social science. Data is collected with the help of survey in
which following instruments are used. (Creswell J. W. et.al.,2007).
1.2.1 Survey Planet
Survey planet is the type of instruments which are used to survey the data through
online. Survey planet is an online survey site. This online survey site helps to evaluate
1.0 Research method
The research method is used to conduct the research. In this chapter, various research
method is used to test the theoretical framework which is represented and discussed.
Various types of research method are used for evaluating why people chose the lowcost
carrier. (Bowen G. A. et.al.,2009).
1.1 Subject
The subject of this chapter is to analyze the situation of why people chose the lowcost
carrier and the various types of methods for evaluating it. Survey planet and SPSS
(Statistical package for the social science) are research methods used to determine the
importance of Lowcost carrier and why people prefer to use the lowcost airline for
serving their traveling purpose.
1.2 Research Instrument
Research instrument is a type of measurement tool which is formulated to get data. In
this research paper, research instruments are used to find out the how many people uses a
lowcost carrier, the main reason for choosing the lowcost carrier and the purpose of the
study. It is determined with the help of questionnaire and survey method
The research instrument used in the research study is surveying planet and SPSS that is a
Statistical package for the social science. Data is collected with the help of survey in
which following instruments are used. (Creswell J. W. et.al.,2007).
1.2.1 Survey Planet
Survey planet is the type of instruments which are used to survey the data through
online. Survey planet is an online survey site. This online survey site helps to evaluate
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS 3
or collect the unlimited surveys and the responses for that survey, surveys which were
written earlier that is a prewritten survey that is which is done by other and the
sharing surveys which are shared on the social media sites by the other researcher.
Pro users of the Survey planet can also access the different types of features
associated with this which is additional features of Survey planet that are custom
theming, exporting to CSV and one can store the survey unlimited on the survey
planet online site. (Hales A. S. et al., 2014).
1.2.2 IBM SPSS
IBM SPSS (Statistical package of social science) is another type of research
instrument which is used in this research study it is used to collect the data and is
used for deployment and authoring of the survey, text analytics, data mining, and
collaboration.
IBM SPSS is a latest version statistical tool which is used to evaluate the data which
can be complex data and helps to find out the research by deploying several statistical
tools or method. (Field A. et.al.,2013).
1.3 Question design
The question design is also called research design. In this research study, quantitative
research design is used to conduct the research on a lowcost carrier. Quantitative type of
research designs is steady with the deducible approach of research (but they do not have
to be included). The quantitative research design is more relevant for the testing
hypothesis that cannot be done with the help of qualitative research design. Quantitative
research uses a specific instrumental and collection of data techniques and developed
or collect the unlimited surveys and the responses for that survey, surveys which were
written earlier that is a prewritten survey that is which is done by other and the
sharing surveys which are shared on the social media sites by the other researcher.
Pro users of the Survey planet can also access the different types of features
associated with this which is additional features of Survey planet that are custom
theming, exporting to CSV and one can store the survey unlimited on the survey
planet online site. (Hales A. S. et al., 2014).
1.2.2 IBM SPSS
IBM SPSS (Statistical package of social science) is another type of research
instrument which is used in this research study it is used to collect the data and is
used for deployment and authoring of the survey, text analytics, data mining, and
collaboration.
IBM SPSS is a latest version statistical tool which is used to evaluate the data which
can be complex data and helps to find out the research by deploying several statistical
tools or method. (Field A. et.al.,2013).
1.3 Question design
The question design is also called research design. In this research study, quantitative
research design is used to conduct the research on a lowcost carrier. Quantitative type of
research designs is steady with the deducible approach of research (but they do not have
to be included). The quantitative research design is more relevant for the testing
hypothesis that cannot be done with the help of qualitative research design. Quantitative
research uses a specific instrumental and collection of data techniques and developed
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MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS 4
tools of statistical analysis for generating knowledge and is also helpful in drawing
conclusions.
This type of research is also appropriate with the positivity of the philosophy. This is the
one of the only approach or strategy in which findings can be easily generalized to some
extent across the populations. The quantitative approach is better than another qualitative
approach for testing the hypothesis for the research. But the choice of quantitative
research design has some limitation to some extent. On the other hand, it is very much
useful to complete the research on specific time. So, this is the most relevant approach.
There is only two major research design of quantitative that can be included in the
research study. Firstly, the research design is a survey method in which the researcher
can measure the independent and dependent variables and try to compare them or
include them as per requirement without doing the manipulation. Secondly, the research
design is an experiment in which the researcher alter the independent variable and to
evaluate the effect of this with the manipulation of the variable which is dependent. This
research study uses only uses the survey research design for conducting the research both
for the practical reasons, and there is no appropriate or affordable way for designing the
experiment for the questions of the research. This research needs to view this research in
more generalized and broad way and need to include the larger sampling size to know
the factor included in lowcost carrier choice which can be done with experiment. The
most of the existing empirical literature on the choice of airline also supported the use of
survey research design in spite of using experiment.
Survey method is used to collect the data directed from the responses by using brief
Responses, and the respondents can easily give answers relevantly. Adequacy rate of
tools of statistical analysis for generating knowledge and is also helpful in drawing
conclusions.
This type of research is also appropriate with the positivity of the philosophy. This is the
one of the only approach or strategy in which findings can be easily generalized to some
extent across the populations. The quantitative approach is better than another qualitative
approach for testing the hypothesis for the research. But the choice of quantitative
research design has some limitation to some extent. On the other hand, it is very much
useful to complete the research on specific time. So, this is the most relevant approach.
There is only two major research design of quantitative that can be included in the
research study. Firstly, the research design is a survey method in which the researcher
can measure the independent and dependent variables and try to compare them or
include them as per requirement without doing the manipulation. Secondly, the research
design is an experiment in which the researcher alter the independent variable and to
evaluate the effect of this with the manipulation of the variable which is dependent. This
research study uses only uses the survey research design for conducting the research both
for the practical reasons, and there is no appropriate or affordable way for designing the
experiment for the questions of the research. This research needs to view this research in
more generalized and broad way and need to include the larger sampling size to know
the factor included in lowcost carrier choice which can be done with experiment. The
most of the existing empirical literature on the choice of airline also supported the use of
survey research design in spite of using experiment.
Survey method is used to collect the data directed from the responses by using brief
Responses, and the respondents can easily give answers relevantly. Adequacy rate of
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS 5
responses and being able to use this data is also a crucial part of using the survey
research design.
A standardized research design is used that is questionnaire is used with the help of
Likert scale for collecting the data. (Creswell J. W. et al., 2013).
Questions related to the three factors that are price, convenience and service are as
follows:
Price factor
i) Price factor is the main reason for selecting low cost carrier
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
ii) Is the prices are low in the low cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iii) Is the prices of low cost carrier are affordable to all classes of people?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iv) Is the prices of low cost carrier are lower than the high cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
v) Is there large gap between the prices of low cost carrier, normal and high cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
responses and being able to use this data is also a crucial part of using the survey
research design.
A standardized research design is used that is questionnaire is used with the help of
Likert scale for collecting the data. (Creswell J. W. et al., 2013).
Questions related to the three factors that are price, convenience and service are as
follows:
Price factor
i) Price factor is the main reason for selecting low cost carrier
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
ii) Is the prices are low in the low cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iii) Is the prices of low cost carrier are affordable to all classes of people?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iv) Is the prices of low cost carrier are lower than the high cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
v) Is there large gap between the prices of low cost carrier, normal and high cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS 6
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Convenience factor
i) Convenience factor is the main reason for selecting low cost carrier
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
ii) Are services of low cost carrier convenient to passenger?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iii) Are prices of low cost carrier are convenient?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iv) Are passengers conveniently choose the low cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
v) Can you compare the low cost carrier with other type of carrier in terms of
convenience
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Convenience factor
i) Convenience factor is the main reason for selecting low cost carrier
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
ii) Are services of low cost carrier convenient to passenger?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iii) Are prices of low cost carrier are convenient?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iv) Are passengers conveniently choose the low cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
v) Can you compare the low cost carrier with other type of carrier in terms of
convenience
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
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Service factor
i) Service factor is the main reason for selecting low cost carrier
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
ii) Are you satisfy the services of the low cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iii) Satisfaction of passenger from the services provided by low cost carrier is high
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iv) Satisfaction of passenger from the services provided by low cost carrier is medium
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
v) Satisfaction of passenger from the services provided by low cost carrier is low
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Service factor
i) Service factor is the main reason for selecting low cost carrier
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
ii) Are you satisfy the services of the low cost carrier?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iii) Satisfaction of passenger from the services provided by low cost carrier is high
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
iv) Satisfaction of passenger from the services provided by low cost carrier is medium
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
v) Satisfaction of passenger from the services provided by low cost carrier is low
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS 8
1.4 Data collection method
Different kinds of data collection methods are used for collecting data for doing surveys
which include online questionnaires, selfadministered questionnaires, telephone
questionnaire and the structures interviews. This four method use structured instruments
that are the method of collection and distribution varies. The questionnaires are collected
through online and through on paper by using selfadministered where the candidates of
the questionnaires are filled manually. The questionnaires can also be filled which is a
part of an interview of structure in which the questions are read and answers that
questions accordingly by defining the terms.
There are two types of data collection method primary and secondary
Primary data collection method: Primary data collection method is a type of
method which is a firsthand data which is collected by researcher only. In this
research study, primary data collection method is used. Questionnaire and survey
method is used to collect the data.
Secondary data collection method: This type data is secondhand data which is
already collected by another researcher, and another one is just using it for their
research study. (Johnson T. et.al., 1982).
In this research paper, primary data collection method is used for conducting the
research on the Lowcost carrier. The selfadministered questionnaires are used
1.4 Data collection method
Different kinds of data collection methods are used for collecting data for doing surveys
which include online questionnaires, selfadministered questionnaires, telephone
questionnaire and the structures interviews. This four method use structured instruments
that are the method of collection and distribution varies. The questionnaires are collected
through online and through on paper by using selfadministered where the candidates of
the questionnaires are filled manually. The questionnaires can also be filled which is a
part of an interview of structure in which the questions are read and answers that
questions accordingly by defining the terms.
There are two types of data collection method primary and secondary
Primary data collection method: Primary data collection method is a type of
method which is a firsthand data which is collected by researcher only. In this
research study, primary data collection method is used. Questionnaire and survey
method is used to collect the data.
Secondary data collection method: This type data is secondhand data which is
already collected by another researcher, and another one is just using it for their
research study. (Johnson T. et.al., 1982).
In this research paper, primary data collection method is used for conducting the
research on the Lowcost carrier. The selfadministered questionnaires are used
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS 9
by using Likert scale for collecting the data from the populations as data
collection take place in the person so there were no restrictions or problems
associated with this except the barriers which are related to language barrier
which cannot be overcome. If the participants who are filling questionnaire are
declined, then another participates are selecting for filling the questionnaire.
Ten teams are formed for collecting the data from the passengers of the airport.
Every team member approaches randomly to the tenth passenger. The total
population is taken into consideration are 100 people that are the 100 passengers
of 10 lowcost airlines.
1.5 Research hypothesis and Statistical Analysis
The research hypothesis of this research study are as follows:
H1= Price factor
H0= Convenience factor
H3= Service factor
The statistical analysis of the research study
Statistical analysis is an element of analytics of data. Collecting and scrutinizing the
every sample of data in a proper set of elements from which samples can be taken are all
included in the statistical analysis. A selected sample which is representative is drawn
from the total population that in from100 population.
The data is analyzed through SPSS by using two techniques which are appropriate for
conducting this research.
by using Likert scale for collecting the data from the populations as data
collection take place in the person so there were no restrictions or problems
associated with this except the barriers which are related to language barrier
which cannot be overcome. If the participants who are filling questionnaire are
declined, then another participates are selecting for filling the questionnaire.
Ten teams are formed for collecting the data from the passengers of the airport.
Every team member approaches randomly to the tenth passenger. The total
population is taken into consideration are 100 people that are the 100 passengers
of 10 lowcost airlines.
1.5 Research hypothesis and Statistical Analysis
The research hypothesis of this research study are as follows:
H1= Price factor
H0= Convenience factor
H3= Service factor
The statistical analysis of the research study
Statistical analysis is an element of analytics of data. Collecting and scrutinizing the
every sample of data in a proper set of elements from which samples can be taken are all
included in the statistical analysis. A selected sample which is representative is drawn
from the total population that in from100 population.
The data is analyzed through SPSS by using two techniques which are appropriate for
conducting this research.
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MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
10
1.5.1 Paired sample Ttest
Data is analyzed with the help of Ttest. A ttest is a type of analysis in which two
population means with the use of examination of statistical, two sample of ttest is
used commonly with the small size of the sample, test the difference between the
samples when the variances are not known of normal distributions. (Baldi P.
et.al.,2001).
Ttest
Assumptions of Paired sample t test
1. Dependent variable is continuous – Assumption is satisfied
2. Normality assumption for the distribution of the differences in the dependent
variable – Histogram was constructed and is given below
From the above histogram, we see that the distribution of difference between low cost carrier
price and high cost carrier price is skewed left, indicating that the assumption of normality is
10
1.5.1 Paired sample Ttest
Data is analyzed with the help of Ttest. A ttest is a type of analysis in which two
population means with the use of examination of statistical, two sample of ttest is
used commonly with the small size of the sample, test the difference between the
samples when the variances are not known of normal distributions. (Baldi P.
et.al.,2001).
Ttest
Assumptions of Paired sample t test
1. Dependent variable is continuous – Assumption is satisfied
2. Normality assumption for the distribution of the differences in the dependent
variable – Histogram was constructed and is given below
From the above histogram, we see that the distribution of difference between low cost carrier
price and high cost carrier price is skewed left, indicating that the assumption of normality is
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
11
violated. Since the sample size is large (n = 240 > 30), violation of normality will not affect the
data to great extent (central limit theorem)
3. There should not exists any outliers in the dataset
The box plot is given below
From the box plot, we can say that there exists no outliers in the dataset
1.5.2 Regression
Regression analysis is a type of statistical tool which is used to find out the relationship between
two variables. Regression contains many techniques for doing modeling and for analyzing the
several variables, it is more appropriate when the main concentration is on to determine the
relationship between one dependent and one independent variable. (Kleiber M. et.al., 1950).
Regression analysis
The regression model to predict high cost carrier price using low cost carrier price as
independent variable is given below
High Cost Carrier Price = b0 + b1 * Low Cost Carrier Price
11
violated. Since the sample size is large (n = 240 > 30), violation of normality will not affect the
data to great extent (central limit theorem)
3. There should not exists any outliers in the dataset
The box plot is given below
From the box plot, we can say that there exists no outliers in the dataset
1.5.2 Regression
Regression analysis is a type of statistical tool which is used to find out the relationship between
two variables. Regression contains many techniques for doing modeling and for analyzing the
several variables, it is more appropriate when the main concentration is on to determine the
relationship between one dependent and one independent variable. (Kleiber M. et.al., 1950).
Regression analysis
The regression model to predict high cost carrier price using low cost carrier price as
independent variable is given below
High Cost Carrier Price = b0 + b1 * Low Cost Carrier Price
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
12
1.6 Assumptions
The following assumptions should be satisfied before running the regression analysis
Linear relationship – Satisfied using Scatter plot Multivariate normality – Satisfied using
Normal p – p plot No or little Multicollinearity (Not required as we are using only one
independent variable) No autocorrelation (Not required as we are using only one
independent variable) Homoscedasticity – Satisfied using Levene’s Test
3.7 Limitation
While doing selfadministered questionnaires, there can be a language barrier which cannot be
overcome. The effect of language barriers recorded in the process of data collection method for
understanding how important and crucial the problem is. There can be chances that can decline
to participates, or they are not complete the questionnaire fully so that questionnaire is not
useful. It cannot be translated into another language. Thus, the potential participates who cannot
speak either language are excluded, and their number for participation are included.
4.0 Result of the study
The statistical results of the study was performed in SPSS and the results are given here
Paired t test was used to determine whether there exists any significant difference between low
cost carrier price and high cost carrier price
Simple linear regression analysis was used to construct a model to predict the future values of
high cost carrier price using low cost carrier price as independent variable
12
1.6 Assumptions
The following assumptions should be satisfied before running the regression analysis
Linear relationship – Satisfied using Scatter plot Multivariate normality – Satisfied using
Normal p – p plot No or little Multicollinearity (Not required as we are using only one
independent variable) No autocorrelation (Not required as we are using only one
independent variable) Homoscedasticity – Satisfied using Levene’s Test
3.7 Limitation
While doing selfadministered questionnaires, there can be a language barrier which cannot be
overcome. The effect of language barriers recorded in the process of data collection method for
understanding how important and crucial the problem is. There can be chances that can decline
to participates, or they are not complete the questionnaire fully so that questionnaire is not
useful. It cannot be translated into another language. Thus, the potential participates who cannot
speak either language are excluded, and their number for participation are included.
4.0 Result of the study
The statistical results of the study was performed in SPSS and the results are given here
Paired t test was used to determine whether there exists any significant difference between low
cost carrier price and high cost carrier price
Simple linear regression analysis was used to construct a model to predict the future values of
high cost carrier price using low cost carrier price as independent variable
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MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
13
4.1 Hypothesis testing
Test – 1: Paired t test
The mean cost for low cost carrier price is 63.55 with a standard deviation of 10.79 and the mean
cost for high cost carrier price is 74.63 with a standard deviation of 10.191. Here, we see that the
value of t test statistic is – 11.08 and its corresponding p – value is 0.000 < 0.05, indicating that
there is a significant difference in the cost of carrier price. Going through the mean values, we
see that the mean high cost carrier price is high when compared to that of low cost carrier price
Test – 2 Regression
The regression model is
High Cost Carrier Price = 71.359 + 0.051 * Low Cost Carrier Price
The coefficient of determination represents the accuracy of the model. Here, we see that the
coefficient of determination is 0.003, indicating that only 0.3% of the variation in the dependent
variable is explained by the regression model and the remaining 99.7% left unexplained and thus,
the model is not reliable in predicting high cost carrier price
Paired Samples Statistics
Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Pair 1 Low.Cost.Carrier.Price 63.5496 250 10.79447 .68270
High.Cost.Carrier.Price 74.6292 250 10.19080 .64452
Paired Samples Correlations
N Correlation Sig.
Pair 1 Low.Cost.Carrier.Price & High.Cost.Carrier.Price 250 .055 .391
13
4.1 Hypothesis testing
Test – 1: Paired t test
The mean cost for low cost carrier price is 63.55 with a standard deviation of 10.79 and the mean
cost for high cost carrier price is 74.63 with a standard deviation of 10.191. Here, we see that the
value of t test statistic is – 11.08 and its corresponding p – value is 0.000 < 0.05, indicating that
there is a significant difference in the cost of carrier price. Going through the mean values, we
see that the mean high cost carrier price is high when compared to that of low cost carrier price
Test – 2 Regression
The regression model is
High Cost Carrier Price = 71.359 + 0.051 * Low Cost Carrier Price
The coefficient of determination represents the accuracy of the model. Here, we see that the
coefficient of determination is 0.003, indicating that only 0.3% of the variation in the dependent
variable is explained by the regression model and the remaining 99.7% left unexplained and thus,
the model is not reliable in predicting high cost carrier price
Paired Samples Statistics
Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Pair 1 Low.Cost.Carrier.Price 63.5496 250 10.79447 .68270
High.Cost.Carrier.Price 74.6292 250 10.19080 .64452
Paired Samples Correlations
N Correlation Sig.
Pair 1 Low.Cost.Carrier.Price & High.Cost.Carrier.Price 250 .055 .391
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
14
Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences t df Sig. (2
tailed)Mean Std.
Deviation
Std.
Error
Mean
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper
Pair
1
Low.Cost.Carrier.Price 
High.Cost.Carrier.Price

11.07960
14.43540 .91297 12.87774 9.28146 
12.136
249 .000
Descriptive Statistics
Mean Std. Deviation N
High Cost Carrier Price 74.6292 10.19080 250
Low Cost Carrier Price 63.5496 10.79447 250
Correlations
High.Cost.Carrier.Price Low.Cost.Carrier.Price
Pearson Correlation High Cost Carrier Price 1.000 .055
Low Cost Carrier Price .055 1.000
Sig. (1tailed) High Cost Carrier Price . .195
Low Cost Carrier Price .195 .
N High Cost Carrier Price 250 250
Low Cost Carrier Price 250 250
Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of the
Estimate
1 .055a .003 .001 10.19614
a. Predictors: (Constant), Low.Cost.Carrier.Price
b. Dependent Variable: High.Cost.Carrier.Price
14
Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences t df Sig. (2
tailed)Mean Std.
Deviation
Std.
Error
Mean
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper
Pair
1
Low.Cost.Carrier.Price 
High.Cost.Carrier.Price

11.07960
14.43540 .91297 12.87774 9.28146 
12.136
249 .000
Descriptive Statistics
Mean Std. Deviation N
High Cost Carrier Price 74.6292 10.19080 250
Low Cost Carrier Price 63.5496 10.79447 250
Correlations
High.Cost.Carrier.Price Low.Cost.Carrier.Price
Pearson Correlation High Cost Carrier Price 1.000 .055
Low Cost Carrier Price .055 1.000
Sig. (1tailed) High Cost Carrier Price . .195
Low Cost Carrier Price .195 .
N High Cost Carrier Price 250 250
Low Cost Carrier Price 250 250
Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of the
Estimate
1 .055a .003 .001 10.19614
a. Predictors: (Constant), Low.Cost.Carrier.Price
b. Dependent Variable: High.Cost.Carrier.Price
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
15
ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1
Regression 76.830 1 76.830 .739 .391b
Residual 25782.415 248 103.961
Total 25859.245 249
a. Dependent Variable: High.Cost.Carrier.Price
b. Predictors: (Constant), Low.Cost.Carrier.Price
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig. 95.0% Confidence
Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
1 (Constant) 71.359 3.858 18.495 .000 63.760 78.958
Low.Cost.Carrier.Price .051 .060 .055 .860 .391 .066 .169
a. Dependent Variable: High.Cost.Carrier.Price
The regression model is
High Cost Carrier Price = 71.359 + 0.051 * Low Cost Carrier Price
The coefficient of determination represents the accuracy of the model. Here, we see that the
coefficient of determination is 0.003, indicating that only 0.3% of the variation in the dependent
variable is explained by the regression model and the remaining 99.7% left unexplained and thus,
the model is not reliable in predicting high cost carrier price
5.0 Discussion
The statistical findings suggest that there is a significant difference in the cost of carrier price.
The mean high cost carrier price is significantly high as expected. In addition, we see that there
exists no relationship between low cost carrier price and high cost carrier price as the correlation
15
ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1
Regression 76.830 1 76.830 .739 .391b
Residual 25782.415 248 103.961
Total 25859.245 249
a. Dependent Variable: High.Cost.Carrier.Price
b. Predictors: (Constant), Low.Cost.Carrier.Price
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig. 95.0% Confidence
Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
1 (Constant) 71.359 3.858 18.495 .000 63.760 78.958
Low.Cost.Carrier.Price .051 .060 .055 .860 .391 .066 .169
a. Dependent Variable: High.Cost.Carrier.Price
The regression model is
High Cost Carrier Price = 71.359 + 0.051 * Low Cost Carrier Price
The coefficient of determination represents the accuracy of the model. Here, we see that the
coefficient of determination is 0.003, indicating that only 0.3% of the variation in the dependent
variable is explained by the regression model and the remaining 99.7% left unexplained and thus,
the model is not reliable in predicting high cost carrier price
5.0 Discussion
The statistical findings suggest that there is a significant difference in the cost of carrier price.
The mean high cost carrier price is significantly high as expected. In addition, we see that there
exists no relationship between low cost carrier price and high cost carrier price as the correlation
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MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
16
coefficient between low cost carrier price and high cost carrier price is 0.055 is low and
insignificant
6.0 Conclusion
The regression model shows that there is very low insignificant relationship between low cost
carrier price and high cost carrier price. In addition, we see that the mean high cost carrier price
is significantly high when compared with low cost carrier price as expected
6.1 Managerial values from ttest analysis
The t test was used to determine whether there exists any difference in the mean value between
the two groups. Here, we compared the mean cost of carrier price between the low cost and high
cost group. From the above table, we see that the value of t test statistic is – 11.08 and its
corresponding p – value is 0.000 < 0.05. This indicates that there exists a difference in the mean
cost of carrier price between the high and low cost carriers
16
coefficient between low cost carrier price and high cost carrier price is 0.055 is low and
insignificant
6.0 Conclusion
The regression model shows that there is very low insignificant relationship between low cost
carrier price and high cost carrier price. In addition, we see that the mean high cost carrier price
is significantly high when compared with low cost carrier price as expected
6.1 Managerial values from ttest analysis
The t test was used to determine whether there exists any difference in the mean value between
the two groups. Here, we compared the mean cost of carrier price between the low cost and high
cost group. From the above table, we see that the value of t test statistic is – 11.08 and its
corresponding p – value is 0.000 < 0.05. This indicates that there exists a difference in the mean
cost of carrier price between the high and low cost carriers
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
17
References
Baldi, P., & Long, A. D. (2001). A Bayesian framework for the analysis of microarray
expression data: regularized ttest and statistical inferences of gene changes. Bioinformatics,
17(6), 509519.
Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative research
journal, 9(2), 2740.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach.
Sage Publications.
Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research.
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.
Hales, A. S., De GregorioMonsalvo, I., Montesinos, B., Casassus, S., Dent, W. F. R., Dougados,
C., ... & Ménard, F. (2014). A CO survey in planetforming disks: characterizing the gas content
in the epoch of planet formation. The Astronomical Journal, 148(3), 47.
Johnson, T., Tarshis, A., & Goldberg, G. (1982). U.S. Patent No. 4,355,372. Washington, DC:
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Kleiber, M. (1950). Physiological meaning of regression equations. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 2(7), 417423.
Proussaloglou, K. and Koppelman, F. (1995). “Air carrier demand: An analysis of market share
determinants,” Air Transportation Journal , 22, 371388
Kim, D.S. and Lee, T. H. (2000). A study on importance difference of airlines’ selective factors
according to level (highlow) of involvement, Journal of TourismSciences. 24(2), 213233
Appendix
SPSS INPUT
17
References
Baldi, P., & Long, A. D. (2001). A Bayesian framework for the analysis of microarray
expression data: regularized ttest and statistical inferences of gene changes. Bioinformatics,
17(6), 509519.
Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative research
journal, 9(2), 2740.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach.
Sage Publications.
Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research.
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.
Hales, A. S., De GregorioMonsalvo, I., Montesinos, B., Casassus, S., Dent, W. F. R., Dougados,
C., ... & Ménard, F. (2014). A CO survey in planetforming disks: characterizing the gas content
in the epoch of planet formation. The Astronomical Journal, 148(3), 47.
Johnson, T., Tarshis, A., & Goldberg, G. (1982). U.S. Patent No. 4,355,372. Washington, DC:
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Kleiber, M. (1950). Physiological meaning of regression equations. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 2(7), 417423.
Proussaloglou, K. and Koppelman, F. (1995). “Air carrier demand: An analysis of market share
determinants,” Air Transportation Journal , 22, 371388
Kim, D.S. and Lee, T. H. (2000). A study on importance difference of airlines’ selective factors
according to level (highlow) of involvement, Journal of TourismSciences. 24(2), 213233
Appendix
SPSS INPUT
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
18
Survey planet input
low cost
carrier
price
high
cost
carrier
price
$59 $79
53.1 71.1
$60 63.99
53.1 $80
$61 71.1
53.1 63.99
$62 $81
18
Survey planet input
low cost
carrier
price
high
cost
carrier
price
$59 $79
53.1 71.1
$60 63.99
53.1 $80
$61 71.1
53.1 63.99
$62 $81
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MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
19
53.1 71.1
$63 63.99
53.1 $82
$64 71.1
$60 63.99
53.1 $83
$61 71.1
53.1 63.99
$62 $84
53.1 71.1
$63 63.99
53.1 $85
$64 71.1
53.1 63.99
$65 $86
$61 71.1
53.1 63.99
$62 $87
53.1 71.1
$63 63.99
53.1 $88
$64 $80
53.1 71.1
$65 63.99
53.1 $81
$66 71.1
$62 63.99
53.1 $82
$63 71.1
53.1 63.99
$64 $83
53.1 71.1
$65 63.99
53.1 $84
$66 71.1
53.1 63.99
$67 $85
$63 71.1
53.1 63.99
$64 $86
53.1 71.1
$65 63.99
53.1 $87
19
53.1 71.1
$63 63.99
53.1 $82
$64 71.1
$60 63.99
53.1 $83
$61 71.1
53.1 63.99
$62 $84
53.1 71.1
$63 63.99
53.1 $85
$64 71.1
53.1 63.99
$65 $86
$61 71.1
53.1 63.99
$62 $87
53.1 71.1
$63 63.99
53.1 $88
$64 $80
53.1 71.1
$65 63.99
53.1 $81
$66 71.1
$62 63.99
53.1 $82
$63 71.1
53.1 63.99
$64 $83
53.1 71.1
$65 63.99
53.1 $84
$66 71.1
53.1 63.99
$67 $85
$63 71.1
53.1 63.99
$64 $86
53.1 71.1
$65 63.99
53.1 $87
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
20
$66 71.1
53.1 63.99
$67 $88
53.1 71.1
$68 63.99
$64 $89
53.1 $81
$65 71.1
53.1 63.99
$66 $82
53.1 71.1
$67 63.99
53.1 $83
$68 71.1
53.1 63.99
$69 $84
$65 71.1
53.1 63.99
$66 $85
53.1 71.1
$67 63.99
53.1 $86
$68 71.1
53.1 63.99
$69 $87
53.1 71.1
$70 63.99
$66 $88
53.1 71.1
$67 63.99
53.1 $89
$68 71.1
53.1 63.99
$69 $90
53.1 $82
$70 71.1
53.1 63.99
$71 $83
$67 71.1
53.1 63.99
$68 $84
53.1 71.1
$69 63.99
20
$66 71.1
53.1 63.99
$67 $88
53.1 71.1
$68 63.99
$64 $89
53.1 $81
$65 71.1
53.1 63.99
$66 $82
53.1 71.1
$67 63.99
53.1 $83
$68 71.1
53.1 63.99
$69 $84
$65 71.1
53.1 63.99
$66 $85
53.1 71.1
$67 63.99
53.1 $86
$68 71.1
53.1 63.99
$69 $87
53.1 71.1
$70 63.99
$66 $88
53.1 71.1
$67 63.99
53.1 $89
$68 71.1
53.1 63.99
$69 $90
53.1 $82
$70 71.1
53.1 63.99
$71 $83
$67 71.1
53.1 63.99
$68 $84
53.1 71.1
$69 63.99
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
21
53.1 $85
$70 71.1
53.1 63.99
$71 $86
53.1 71.1
$72 63.99
$68 $87
53.1 71.1
$69 63.99
53.1 $88
$70 71.1
53.1 63.99
$71 $89
53.1 71.1
$72 63.99
53.1 $90
$73 71.1
$69 63.99
53.1 $91
$70 $83
53.1 71.1
$71 63.99
53.1 $84
$72 71.1
53.1 63.99
$73 $85
53.1 71.1
$74 63.99
$70 $86
53.1 71.1
$71 63.99
53.1 $87
$72 71.1
53.1 63.99
$73 $88
53.1 71.1
$74 63.99
53.1 $89
$75 71.1
$71 63.99
53.1 $90
$72 71.1
53.1 63.99
21
53.1 $85
$70 71.1
53.1 63.99
$71 $86
53.1 71.1
$72 63.99
$68 $87
53.1 71.1
$69 63.99
53.1 $88
$70 71.1
53.1 63.99
$71 $89
53.1 71.1
$72 63.99
53.1 $90
$73 71.1
$69 63.99
53.1 $91
$70 $83
53.1 71.1
$71 63.99
53.1 $84
$72 71.1
53.1 63.99
$73 $85
53.1 71.1
$74 63.99
$70 $86
53.1 71.1
$71 63.99
53.1 $87
$72 71.1
53.1 63.99
$73 $88
53.1 71.1
$74 63.99
53.1 $89
$75 71.1
$71 63.99
53.1 $90
$72 71.1
53.1 63.99
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MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
22
$73 $91
53.1 71.1
$74 63.99
53.1 $92
$75 $84
53.1 71.1
$76 63.99
$72 $85
53.1 71.1
$73 63.99
53.1 $86
$74 71.1
53.1 63.99
$75 $87
53.1 71.1
$76 63.99
53.1 $88
$77 71.1
$73 63.99
53.1 $89
$74 71.1
53.1 63.99
$75 $90
53.1 71.1
$76 63.99
53.1 $91
$77 71.1
53.1 63.99
$78 $92
$74 71.1
53.1 63.99
$75 $93
53.1 $85
$76 71.1
53.1 63.99
$77 $86
53.1 71.1
$78 63.99
53.1 $87
$79 71.1
$75 63.99
53.1 $88
$76 71.1
22
$73 $91
53.1 71.1
$74 63.99
53.1 $92
$75 $84
53.1 71.1
$76 63.99
$72 $85
53.1 71.1
$73 63.99
53.1 $86
$74 71.1
53.1 63.99
$75 $87
53.1 71.1
$76 63.99
53.1 $88
$77 71.1
$73 63.99
53.1 $89
$74 71.1
53.1 63.99
$75 $90
53.1 71.1
$76 63.99
53.1 $91
$77 71.1
53.1 63.99
$78 $92
$74 71.1
53.1 63.99
$75 $93
53.1 $85
$76 71.1
53.1 63.99
$77 $86
53.1 71.1
$78 63.99
53.1 $87
$79 71.1
$75 63.99
53.1 $88
$76 71.1
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
23
53.1 63.99
$77 $89
53.1 71.1
$78 63.99
53.1 $90
$79 71.1
53.1 63.99
$80 $91
$76 71.1
53.1 63.99
$77 $92
53.1 71.1
$78 63.99
53.1 $93
$79 71.1
53.1 63.99
$80 $94
53.1 $86
$81 71.1
$77 63.99
53.1 $87
$78 71.1
53.1 63.99
$79 $88
53.1 71.1
$80 63.99
53.1 $89
$81 71.1
53.1 63.99
$82 $90
$78 71.1
53.1 63.99
$79 $91
53.1 71.1
$80 63.99
53.1 $92
$81 71.1
53.1 63.99
$82 $93
53.1 71.1
$83 63.99
$79 $94
53.1 71.1
23
53.1 63.99
$77 $89
53.1 71.1
$78 63.99
53.1 $90
$79 71.1
53.1 63.99
$80 $91
$76 71.1
53.1 63.99
$77 $92
53.1 71.1
$78 63.99
53.1 $93
$79 71.1
53.1 63.99
$80 $94
53.1 $86
$81 71.1
$77 63.99
53.1 $87
$78 71.1
53.1 63.99
$79 $88
53.1 71.1
$80 63.99
53.1 $89
$81 71.1
53.1 63.99
$82 $90
$78 71.1
53.1 63.99
$79 $91
53.1 71.1
$80 63.99
53.1 $92
$81 71.1
53.1 63.99
$82 $93
53.1 71.1
$83 63.99
$79 $94
53.1 71.1
MARKETING RESEARCH ANALYSIS
24
$80 63.99
53.1 $95
$81 $87
53.1 71.1
$82 63.99
53.1 $88
$83 71.1
53.1 63.99
$84 $89
$80 71.1
53.1 63.99
$81 $90
53.1 71.1
$82 63.99
53.1 $91
$83 71.1
53.1 63.99
$84 $92
53.1 71.1
$85 63.99
$81 $93
53.1 71.1
$82 63.99
53.1 $94
$83 71.1
53.1 63.99
$84 $95
53.1 71.1
24
$80 63.99
53.1 $95
$81 $87
53.1 71.1
$82 63.99
53.1 $88
$83 71.1
53.1 63.99
$84 $89
$80 71.1
53.1 63.99
$81 $90
53.1 71.1
$82 63.99
53.1 $91
$83 71.1
53.1 63.99
$84 $92
53.1 71.1
$85 63.99
$81 $93
53.1 71.1
$82 63.99
53.1 $94
$83 71.1
53.1 63.99
$84 $95
53.1 71.1
1 out of 25
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