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This lab assignment focuses on data visualization in the context of MATH 2610 Survey of Statistics. It covers creating frequency distributions, graphing histograms and box-and-whisker plots, and interpreting the shape of distributions. The assignment also includes short answer questions related to the histograms and descriptive statistics.

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MATH 2610 Survey of Statistics

Lab Assignment #1: Data Visualization

Statistical concepts used in this lab:ï‚· Using the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual

ï‚· Creating Frequency Distributions

ï‚· Graphing Frequency Histograms

ï‚· Graphing Box-n-whisker Plots

ï‚· Identifying the shape of distributions

LAB INSTRUCTIONS

ïƒ˜ Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual to help you understand how to

create and interpret the graphs in this lab assignment.

ïƒ˜ The data set for this course has already been formatted, entered into an Excel

worksheet and posted in Blackboard.

ïƒ˜ The names of each variable are in the first row of the Worksheet. This row has a

background color of gray to identify it as the variable names. All other rows of the

Worksheet represent a brand of cereal. Therefore, the rows are called observations

and the columns are called variables.

ïƒ˜ Follow the directions below and then paste the graphs from Excel in the gray areas

for question 1 through 5. Type your answers to questions 6 through 10 where noted in

the gray areas. When asked for explanations, please give thorough, multi-sentence or

paragraph length explanations.

ïƒ˜ This completed Lab Word Document with your responses to the 10 questions will be

the ONLY document you will upload in Blackboard.

Lab Assignment #1: Data Visualization

Statistical concepts used in this lab:ï‚· Using the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual

ï‚· Creating Frequency Distributions

ï‚· Graphing Frequency Histograms

ï‚· Graphing Box-n-whisker Plots

ï‚· Identifying the shape of distributions

LAB INSTRUCTIONS

ïƒ˜ Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual to help you understand how to

create and interpret the graphs in this lab assignment.

ïƒ˜ The data set for this course has already been formatted, entered into an Excel

worksheet and posted in Blackboard.

ïƒ˜ The names of each variable are in the first row of the Worksheet. This row has a

background color of gray to identify it as the variable names. All other rows of the

Worksheet represent a brand of cereal. Therefore, the rows are called observations

and the columns are called variables.

ïƒ˜ Follow the directions below and then paste the graphs from Excel in the gray areas

for question 1 through 5. Type your answers to questions 6 through 10 where noted in

the gray areas. When asked for explanations, please give thorough, multi-sentence or

paragraph length explanations.

ïƒ˜ This completed Lab Word Document with your responses to the 10 questions will be

the ONLY document you will upload in Blackboard.

Need help grading? Try our AI Grader for instant feedback on your assignments.

2

Creating Graphs

1. Create a frequency distribution to indicate Average Sodium content for each

manufacturer. (10 points)

Manufacturer Number of Brands Average Sodium

Content

A 1 0

G 22 200

K 23 170

N 6 38

P 9 150

Q 8 93

R 8 200

2. Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual (pages 5-8) to create a

Grouped Histogram with 6 classes for the variable Sodium from the Cereal Data.

Copy and paste the graph below. (15 points)

3

1. Create a frequency distribution to indicate Average Sodium content for each

manufacturer. (10 points)

Manufacturer Number of Brands Average Sodium

Content

A 1 0

G 22 200

K 23 170

N 6 38

P 9 150

Q 8 93

R 8 200

2. Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual (pages 5-8) to create a

Grouped Histogram with 6 classes for the variable Sodium from the Cereal Data.

Copy and paste the graph below. (15 points)

3

0-55 56-110 111-165 166-220 221-275 Over 275

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Grouped Histogram for the Variable Sodium

Frequency

Class range

Frequency

3. Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual (pages 5-8) to create a

Grouped Histogram with 6 classes for the variable Sodium using only

manufacturers K and G. Copy and paste the graph below. (15 points)

4

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Grouped Histogram for the Variable Sodium

Frequency

Class range

Frequency

3. Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual (pages 5-8) to create a

Grouped Histogram with 6 classes for the variable Sodium using only

manufacturers K and G. Copy and paste the graph below. (15 points)

4

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0-55 56-110 111-165 166-220 221-275 over 275

0

5

10

15

20

25

Histogram for manufactures of K and G

Frequency

Class range

Frequency

4. Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual (pages 17-19) to create a

Box-and-Whisker plot (Box Plot) for the Sodium content of the population.

(15 points)

5

0

5

10

15

20

25

Histogram for manufactures of K and G

Frequency

Class range

Frequency

4. Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual (pages 17-19) to create a

Box-and-Whisker plot (Box Plot) for the Sodium content of the population.

(15 points)

5

5. Create a box-and-whisker plot of the Sodium content for a sample. Use either the

Cluster or Stratified technique. (15 points)

6

Cluster or Stratified technique. (15 points)

6

Short Answer Writing Assignment

All answers should be complete sentences.

6. What is your interpretation of the histogram created for the Sodium content

(include the shape)? What does this tell you about the data? (6 points)

The histogram is skewed towards the left, this shows that most of the cerealâ€™s sodium

contents are accommodated within the first 4 class ranges. The sodium contents for

most of the cereals fall in the class rage 166 to 220.

7. How do the histograms in #2 and #3 compare? Is this what you expected?

Explain.

(6 points)

The histogram for # 2 is skewed towards the left while that of the # 3 is bell shaped.

Considering that the histogram in # 3 is generated from a sampled data it is expected

that it may deviate from that of the original population data. The bell-shaped histogram

shows that the sampled data is normally distributed and can be described by the mean

and the standard deviation.

8. Are there any outliers present in the Sodium content population data? Can you

tell from the Histogram? Is it more/less obvious from the Box-and Whiskers Plot?

(6 points)

The Sodium content population data has no outlier present. This is not easily visible

from the histogram but is obvious upon the generation of a box and whisker plot. An

outlier is presented as visible dots outside the boxplot. Looking at the generated box

plot there are no dots hence proving absent of outliers.

7

All answers should be complete sentences.

6. What is your interpretation of the histogram created for the Sodium content

(include the shape)? What does this tell you about the data? (6 points)

The histogram is skewed towards the left, this shows that most of the cerealâ€™s sodium

contents are accommodated within the first 4 class ranges. The sodium contents for

most of the cereals fall in the class rage 166 to 220.

7. How do the histograms in #2 and #3 compare? Is this what you expected?

Explain.

(6 points)

The histogram for # 2 is skewed towards the left while that of the # 3 is bell shaped.

Considering that the histogram in # 3 is generated from a sampled data it is expected

that it may deviate from that of the original population data. The bell-shaped histogram

shows that the sampled data is normally distributed and can be described by the mean

and the standard deviation.

8. Are there any outliers present in the Sodium content population data? Can you

tell from the Histogram? Is it more/less obvious from the Box-and Whiskers Plot?

(6 points)

The Sodium content population data has no outlier present. This is not easily visible

from the histogram but is obvious upon the generation of a box and whisker plot. An

outlier is presented as visible dots outside the boxplot. Looking at the generated box

plot there are no dots hence proving absent of outliers.

7

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9. Are there any outliers present in the Sodium content sample data used to create

the Box-and Whiskers plot? (6 points)

The sampled data has no outlier. Looking at the box and whisker plot generated in # 5

there are no visible dots outside the minimum maximum range occupied by the box

plot.

10. Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual (pages 14-16) to calculate the

Descriptive Statistics for the Sodium content of the population. What is the

Mean, Median and Skewness? How does this information relate to the shape of

the distribution? (6 points)

Descriptive Statistics

sodium

Mean 159.6753247

Standard Error 9.553576691

Median 180

Mode 0

Standard

Deviation 83.83229524

Sample Variance 7027.853725

Kurtosis -0.345242669

Skewness -0.575711351

Range 320

Minimum 0

Maximum 320

Sum 12295

Count 77

8

the Box-and Whiskers plot? (6 points)

The sampled data has no outlier. Looking at the box and whisker plot generated in # 5

there are no visible dots outside the minimum maximum range occupied by the box

plot.

10. Use the Introductory to Statistics Excel Lab Manual (pages 14-16) to calculate the

Descriptive Statistics for the Sodium content of the population. What is the

Mean, Median and Skewness? How does this information relate to the shape of

the distribution? (6 points)

Descriptive Statistics

sodium

Mean 159.6753247

Standard Error 9.553576691

Median 180

Mode 0

Standard

Deviation 83.83229524

Sample Variance 7027.853725

Kurtosis -0.345242669

Skewness -0.575711351

Range 320

Minimum 0

Maximum 320

Sum 12295

Count 77

8

Largest (1) 320

Smallest (1) 0

Mean: 159.6753247

Median: 180

Skewness: -0.575711351

The mean and the median of the variable are close together showing the data is

approximately normally distributed. Being that the mean is slightly less compared to

the median shows that the data is slightly negatively skewed. This is explained by the

skewness of -0.5757.

9

Smallest (1) 0

Mean: 159.6753247

Median: 180

Skewness: -0.575711351

The mean and the median of the variable are close together showing the data is

approximately normally distributed. Being that the mean is slightly less compared to

the median shows that the data is slightly negatively skewed. This is explained by the

skewness of -0.5757.

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