Cartographic Challenges in Animated Mapping: Assignment

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MESSAGES
FEATURED ARTICLES
Cartographicanimation:potentialandresearch issues
Dori.;;Karl
Visuali.linguncertaininformation
Ala11M.MacEachre11
BOOKREVIEWS
'vtaltman,A.
GeologicnlMaps
rt'Pll'1tWf/JyNor111a11Meek
Maguire,D.J.,M.F.Goodchild,andD.W.Rhind (eds.)
Gcograpilicali11for111atio11systems:principlesa11dapplications
n·uicwed/JyE.Ly1111Usery
CARTOGRAPHICPERSPECTIVESONTHENEWS
LA·DsATUpdate
RECENTPUBLICATIONS
ANNOUNCEMENTS
CARTOGRAPHICEVENTS
NACISNEWS
NACISXIIPROGRAMANDCONFERENCESCHEDULE
1
3
10
20
21
22
23
25
26
27
31
messages
MESSAGEFROMNACIS XII
PROGRAMCHAIR
TheTwelfthAnnualMeetingof
ACIS will be held October 14 -17
in St.Paul, Minnesota. Asalways
theNACISConferencewill
provideanopenandprofessional
atmosphereforthe exchangeof
informationandideas forallwho
areinterested inmapsandcartog-
raphy.Thisyear'sprogram
promisestobequiteexciting.
Highlightsincludeaddressesby
thedeanofAmerican cartography,
ArthurH. Robinson,andJohn
FraserHart,formerpresidentof
theAssociationofAmerican
Geographers.
Thelatestresearch develop-
mentsincartography,most
notably intheareasofanimated
mapping,cognitivecartography,
cartographic education,andmap
librarianshipwillbepresented.
Othersessions willexplorerecent
developmentsinsoftwareand
hardwareforcartographicproduc-
tion,federalmappinginitiatives,
andmaplibraryservicesand
access.Inaddition,thisyear
ACIS willbesponsoringaseries
of"hands-on"workshopson
animationincartographyand
thematicmapdesignusingthePC.
cartograpllicperspectives
bulletinofthe
NorthAmericanCartographic
InformationSociety
Editor:SonaKarentzAndrewsDepartmentofGeography
208 Sabin Hall
3414 N.DownerAvenue
Univ. of Wisconsin-MihvaukeeMilwaukee, WI53211(414) 229-4872,
e-mail: sona@csd4.csd.uwm.edu.
AssistantEditorDavidW.TiltonDepartmentofGeography
Univ.ofWisconsin-Milwaukee
Milwaukee, WI53211e-mail:
tilton@convex.csd.uwm.edu.
Copyeditor
MarkZi111111ennan11
ISSN1048-9085
C1rtographic Perspectives
ispublishedtriannually
Severalfieldtripsarealsoplanned
tofamiliarize conference partici-
pantswiththeTwinCitiesand
theircartographiccenters. NACIS
membersshouldhaverecently
received (orshortly will receive)
informationanda registration
form forthemeeting.We have
alsopublished apreliminary
conferencescheduleonpages31-
33inthisissue ofCP.Donot
hesitate to contactmeifyouhave
anyquestionsorwish to receive
additionalinformationand
registration material.
JeffreyC.Patton
Progrn111ChairNACISXTI
Depart111e11tofGeogrnphy
UniversityofNorthCarolina-
Greensboro
Greensboro,NC27412
MESSAGEFROMTHEEDITOR
Thisissuemarkssomechangesfor
CartographicPerspectives.Although
thedesignandoveralllookofthe
publication remainthesame(at
leastIhopeitdoeswhenitgoesto
press), therehavebeensome
significantchanges.Oneofthese
is achangeineditorshipofthe
journal.DavidDiBiase,whohad
servedaseditorofCPsinceits first
issueinMarchof1989,completed
histenureaseditorwithissueNo.
12(nowknownasthe"white
issue").IknowIspeakforevery
ACISmemberinthankingDave
formakingCPajournalofhigh
qualityinbothitscontent and
design. I personallyappreciatehis
assistanceinmakingtheeditorial
transitiongosmoothly.Manyof
thecontributionsinthiscurrent
issuewereinitiated,andinsome
casesalreadycompleted forme,by
DaveandhisstaffatPennState.l
canonlyhopethatwecan con-
tinue toproducea publication of
equalquality.
Another notablechangemarked
bythisissue is thatinsteadof a
singleFeaturedArticle,this issue
hastwoFeaturedArticles.Itismy
hope,andthatoftheEditorial
Board, thatthisprecedentcontin-
uesandthat thecartographic
communitybenefitfromthe
increasedscholarly contribution
thatCPcanmake.Wewishto
encouragesubmission ofmanu-
scriptsaswellasallotheritemsof
interestforpublicationconsider-
ation. Guidelines forpapersand
submissionsappearattheendof
thisissue.
We willbepublishingCPthree
timesperyear.Wehavetargeteda
Fall,Winter,andSpringpublica-
tionschedule.Thisissue(Number
13, Fall 1992)hasimportant
informationaboutNACISXII.
Themeetingwillbeheld inSt.
Paul,Minnesota fromOctober14 -
17.ACISmembersshouldhave
alreadyreceived(orshortly will
receive)a conferenceschedule
programandregistration forms,
however,wehavealso included
thisinformationonpages31-33of
thisissue.Youshouldnotethat
NACISisconducting threework-
shopsthis year:Macintosh Anima-
tion,IBMAnimation,andMap
ProductionandDesign These
workshopswillprovideanexcel-
lentopportunitytogethands-on
exposuretosomeofthenewand
excitingtechniquesthatare
changingthewayweconceive,
store,andusemaps.Iurge
anyonethatcan takeadvantageof
theseworkshopstodoso.
Finally, Iwouldlike toencour-
ageeachofyoutoletusknowif
youhavesuggestions forimprov-
ingthequalityandcontentofCP.
Yourinputwillbegreatlyappreci-
atedandnotignored.Ilook
forwardtoservingaseditorand
hopethatthe informationwe
providethroughCPis interesting,
informative,andbeneficial.
SonaKarentz Andrews
apassing
OnJune7,inChicago,Illinois,
Barbara Bartz Petchenikdiedof
cancerattheageof52.Barbara
wasamemberofACISand
throughoutherprofessionalcareer
Barbara integrated scholarly
researchinterestsinthenatureof
spatialknm·vledgeandmapping
participation incommercial
cartography.
Barbarawasa SeniorSales
Representative forR.R.Donnelley
Cartographic Services,Mapping
Services Division since1975.From
1970 to 1975shewasCartographic
Editor oftheAtlasofEarlyAmeri-
canHistory,andfrom1964to1970
wasCartographicEditorandStaff
ConsultantinResearchandDesign
forWorldBook£11cyclopedia.She
co11ti1111ed011page25
Number13, Fall 1992cartographic perspectives3
featured articles
Thepotentialofcomputeranimationhasbeenrealizedinmanydiffer-
entdisciplines.Animationisalso apowerfulvisualizationtool for
cartography;however,ithasbeenneglecteduntilrecently.Thispaper
portraystheneedforanimationincartographyinthelightofthenew
approachesandmethodsinthesciencesaswellasinsociety.Itdis-
cussestwomainreasons forthelack ofanimationincartography:the
fixationontheprintedmapandtheabsenceofacomprehensiveap-
proach to cartographicanimation.Finally,avarietyofissuesforfurther
researchareproposed.
Computeranimationhasbecomeanimportantvisualization toolin
recentyears.Improvementsincomputerhardwareandsoftware
havemadethe widespreaduseof computer animation possible.The
potentialofcomputeranimationhasalready been realizedbydifferent
disciplines, forexamplethe film industry, architecture, fashion designand
thesciences.
Computeranimationalsohasmanypotential uses in cartography.It
allowsthecreationofmapsequencesthatcanshowspatialinformation
dynamically. Animatedmapsequencescandepict time directlyas a
cartographicvariable,theycandepictinformationmappedindifferent
ways;andtheycanpresentthemapobjectsina particular sequence. But
dowereallyneed thissortof information display?Cananimation really
showmore thanthepresentation forms we already have,orisanimation
onlyatoyforcartographers?Toanswerthis,vveneedto examinethe
modernapproachesandmethodsin thesciencesaswellasin society.
Spatialsciencehaschangedfromtheanalysis ofstaticstatestothestudy
ofprocesses. Researchersarenolongerinterestedinstudyingonlystatic
situations;theyaremoreconcernedwith changesandforcesthatinduce
orcause differentstates.Mapsareanimportanttool forspatialscientists.
The staticmap,however,isnot abletoshowprocesses directly.Ofcourse,
cartographershavedeveloped differentmethodsfor depicting changes,
butallofthesemethodsreducethedynamicaspectsofrealitytostatic
statesthatcanhardlyshowthe changesthattakeplace.Cartographic
animationcandomorebymakingthedynamicaspectofspatial changes
visibletothemapuser. Processesbecomemoretransparentusinganima-
tionfortheir visualization.
Spatial sciencehasalsobeen influencedbysystemtheory. Scientific
investigationsarenolongerconcerned only with isolated phenomena;
theyexamineparticularlytherelationshipsandcorrelationsofdifferent
phenomena.Scientists need arepresentationformthatcanshowall the
correlations.Static maps arenotthe bestpresentation form for displaying
theserelationships.Often,mapsare overloaded withinformation layers
toshowthemanycorrelations.lnananimatedmapsequence,map
elementscan be presentedin differentordersandcombinationstomake
thespatialrelationshipsmoreapparent.Themapusercanbedirected
throughthepresentedsubject,andthecorrelations canbebroughtto the
user'sattention.
Inthelate1980s,thesciences discovered scientificvisualization.Itis
usedfor data analysis toseepatternsthateitheranswerquestionsorthat
posenewandunexpected questions. Scientific visualizationrequires
computeranimation,especiallyinteractive animation, thatcanshowthe
Cartographic
Animation:
Potentialand
Research
Issues
DorisKarl
THEEEO FOR ANIMATIO
INCARTOGRAPHY
DorisKarlisastude11tatthe
FreieUniversitiitBerlin,
Fachricht1111gKnrtogrnplrie
Amo-Hol:-Str.12,0-1000
Berlin41
4cartographic perspectivesNumber13,Fall 1992
THEEMPfCASIS0.THE
TRADITIONAL PRlTEDMAP--
ANOBSTACLETO CARTO-
GRAPHIC ANIMATTO.\J
datasetinmanydifferent ways. Thestaticmapdoesnot have this
flexibility in information display;itcanshowinformation only inone
\•;ay, soit is nota suitableinstrument.
Finally,oneshouldlookatthemapusersofthefuture-the childrenof
today. Thisyounggenerationisoften called"thevideogeneration" because
ithasgrownupwithvideoandcomputergames.Thesechildren aremore
accustomedtothecomputerthan mostadults; the interactivityanddynamic
aspects ofcomputergamesare amatterofcourse forthem.Atsomeschools
computerswithinteractiveanddynamicprogramsareusedasa didactic
devicelorouse thestudents'interest.Jnthis respect,cartographershave to
ask if the traditionalstaticmapwillbeagoodcommunicationmediumfor
these futuremapusersorwhetherwe should look for alternati\'eforms.
Animatedmapsequencesthatcanbecontrolledinteractivelyare an alterna-
tive.
Itseemsthatcartographicanimation ismorethan anice toyandshould
beviewedasapowerfulvisualizationtoolfor cartographythat transcends
the potentialoftheprintedmap. Inspiteofthis potential,computer
animationhas beenneglectedin cartography until recently.Twomain
reasonsfortheabsenceofanimation incartography willbe discussed in
the following twosections.Thefirstandmostimportantreason is the
fixationonthepapermap; thesecond, resultingfrom the first, isthe
absenceofa completeandsystematic approach to cartographicanimation.
The traditional printedmapisregardedbycartographersasanexcellent
formofpresentation.ILis considered to beaproductthat has ilttainednear
perfectionina longevolutionaryprocess. Many representationalmethods
andtechniques have been developed for topographicandthematicmaps
which,ingeneral, enablethecreationofgoodmaps.Also, themapuser is
accustomedto the printedmapandpresumably hewantsto havea "real"
map,apapermap. Thus, one cansaythat the traditional printedmapis a
standardfor both themapmakerandthemapuser.'ewtechniquesand
methods,suchastheuseofcomputersincartography,arealwayscompared
withandmeasuredagainstthe printedmapandevaluated accordingly.This
isperhapsespeciallytrue in EuropeasGillessen (1986, p.53),aGerman
cartographer, states:
"Thi! t?xcellenceofmaps produced in Central EuropeplacL"ihigh qualitydemands
on altern,1tive mapping •.olutionsandistherewith a standard ofqualit~for allnew
de\'Clopmcnhm c.utography. [...]Onewould gosoforas tosa\that the high
standard of cartographvinCentral Europe has hampered the developmentandthe
willingne-.stoaccepttheproducts of anynewtechnology[...[ in cartography."
Thisc.1uoteillustrates the extentofLhefixation onthe printed map. As
aresultofthis thinking,otherandperhapsbetter information displays
areoverlookedandthestandardmapis not placed in question.
Ifoneaskswhythe traditionalmapisusedasthestandard,many
argumentsarelisted in its favor:
-traditionalmapsare though to be more attractive thancomputer
generatedmaps;
-text, lineandothersymbolsarethoughto bemore"alive"ona tradi-
tionalmapandnotasartificialorsyntheticinappearance;
-itattractstheeyeandkeeps themapuser'sattention.
All theseargumentsarebased on theaestheticimpressionofa map.
Theexterior appearanceis averyimportantcriterioninits evaluation.
Theimportanceofbeauty in amapcanalso befound inacommon
definitionof cartographyas theartandscienceofmapmaking.But, can
the aesthetic valueofamapcontinue to beoneofthe mostimportant
Number13, Fall 1992cartographic perspectives5
criteria forjudgingthequalityofamap?"'vtapsarethecarrier'> of informa-
tion intheprocessofcommunicationandshouldtheynotbee\'aluatedin
this lightaswell?Sothequestiontoaskiswhetherthetraditionalmapis
reallythebestpresentation form.
Theuseofcomputersincartographyoffersnewformsofinformation
display.Howe,·er,becausewearestill fixatedonthetraditionalmap,we
overlookthis potentialandusethecomputerspredominantlyto mimic
manualmethods.
Ifonelooksmorecloselyatthe application ofcomputersincartogra-
phy,oneseesthat theyhavebeenextensivelyused toshortentimeand
workintensive tasks.Dataprocessinganddraftinghavebeenautomated
andinteractivecomputersystemsnowfacilitatethemapde!:iignprocess.
Languages likePost!:icriptallowthedirecttransferofmapsbetweenthe
displayandtheimagesetter.Themaineffortshave been directed in
makingcomputer-createdmapsasgoodasthetraditionalmap.
Thefixationontheprintedmap''"'ithincomputercartographycanbe
furtherdemonstratedwithregardtotheGermanATKISproject(Autho-
rizedTopographicCartographicInformationSystem)thatwill containthe
dataofthe topographicmapsofGermanyin digitalform.Thepurposeof
ATKJS is tomakepossible the digitalproductionoftopographicmapsthat
can beupdatedquicklyandeasily,andthecreation of specialpurpose
mapsof single topics.ThemapsthataregeneratedfromATKISarethe
traditionalpapermaps.ewforms ofinformationdisplayarenota goal
of ATKlS. Harbeck(1989,p.98),oneofthedesignersofA TKIS, statesin
thiscontext:
"Withoutdoubtattheendof the digitaltopographicmform,11tonsy..temtht.!rebthe
cartogrnphicoutputthemap.\\hether this producti.,onthecompuh:r displayora
printedmapdepend.,ontheuser.But surelyitcanbe.,tah:dthatth!.!color printed
m,1pwillcontinuetoh.weitsimportance-perhapsen•ngain inimport,1nceas a
commud1t\"
Thefixationonthetraditionalmapandonpaperastheprimaryoutput
mediumisstronglypresentwithin cartography.Jfwedonotovercome
this fixation,wemayignorenewformsofinformationdisplayandwe
maynot reali7e their potential.
Asaresultofthe fixationontheprintedmap,otherforms ofinformation
displayhavebeenoverlookedandtoo little research hasbeendoneinthis
area.Thisistruefor cartographicanimation.
Thepotentialofanimationforcartographywasinitially describedby
Thrower(1961)andbyCornwellandRobinson (1966).l\evertheless,onlya
smallamountofworkhasbeendonein thisfield.Inthe1970s,when
computeranimationbecame available,indi\'idualcartographersusedani-
mationpredominantlytoshowspatial changesovertime.Theeffortswere
focusedonproducinganimatedmapsequences for specialissues like the
grO\vthofacity(Tobler1970), traffic accidents(\1oellering1976),population
gro\.vth inurbanregions(Rase1974)andanimationofthreedimensional
objects(Moellering1980).Mostofthe1980ssawnofurtherworkincarto-
graphicanimation.otuntiltheendof the 1980swascartographicanima-
tion rediscoveredwhencartographersrealizedthepotential ofanimationfor
the depictionandexploration of spatialandstatisticalrelationshipsand
patterns.Someauthorsagaincalled attentiontothepotentialofcartographic
animation(CampbellandEgbert1990),anda fewnewanimationtechniques
weresuggested fortheanalysisofspatio-temporaldata(Monmonier1989
and1990)andthestudyof geoscientificprocesses(OiBiase et. al. 1991).In
THE ABSENCEOFA COM-
PREHESIVEAPPROACHU\'
CARTOGRAPl IlC AIMA-
TlON--ANOTHEROBSTACLE
6cartographic perspectivesNumber13, Fall 1992
REQUIRED RESEARCH
addition, a program for animating choroplethmapswas created (MacChoro
II1989).
Alltheseworks employedtheapplication of cartographic animation.
Mostofthem exclusively dealwiththereali7ationofan animatedmap
sequence foronespecial issue.Onlythe later works pickupamore
commonandextensiveattemptatthe cartographic application of
animation.
Theseareimportantcontributions,buttheyarc individual solutionsto
individual problems.A comprehensiveandsystematic approachto the
useofanimationincartographydoesnotexist.Ytanyessentialissues
havenotbeen examined. Therefore, basickno'vvledgeaboutdesign,
perceptionandproductionofanimatedmapsequencesis notavailable.
There are noprinciples thattellcartographershO\'\'to makeanddesign
animatedmaps.Withoutextensive knowledge ofthecreationofanimated
maps,cartographic animation cannot be appliedwidelyandefficiently;it
canbe usedonly sporadically because toomanydesignissues will need to
beworkedoutfor each single application.Iftheinfluenceofanimation in
cartographyis to increase,wemustexpandourknowledgeaboutcarto-
graphic animationanddevelopa comprehensiveandsystematic approach
toit.Thiswillrequire intensive researchindifferentareas.
Futureresearch incartographic animationhasto deal with a
varietyofquestions.Thefollowing issuesmustbeexamined:
Definitionofcartographicanimation
The absenceofasystematicapproach tocartographicanimation becomes
particularlyevident whenwearriveatthe question: What iscartographic
animation?Theredocsnotseemtobea consensus. Can animationbeused
only formapsequencesthat depictchanges overtime,orcanit also be used
formapsequenceswithoutatimeelementthatshowchangesin the presen-
tation formorcreateamapina sequential form? Can animation beusedonly
for complexmapc;,equencescreatedbya special animationtechnique,orisa
simple"slide show"aboananimation?Whatarethecharacteristicsof
animationandhowcanitbe defined? This should be thefirst question to be
examined.
Cartographicapplications
Mostoftheworkincartographic animationhasbeendonein thisarea.
However,theissue has notbeenhandled in itsentirety.Furtherwork
mustinvestigate whichotherornewformsofanimationarepossibleand
whethertheyareuseful. For thiswehave toexaminedifferentmaptypes
andtheirpossibilities for cartographic animation.Perhapswe\vill find
newforms of animatedmaps. Agreatdealofexperimentationmustbe
donewithin this issue.
Graphicdesignofanimatedmaps
Animatedmapsequencesaredifferent from themaps\\'eordinarilyuse.
TheyarepredominantlydisplayedonaCRT, arenotstaticbutdynamic,and
areoftenshownveryquickly.Wemustexaminehowsuchmapsmustbe
designed.Someresearchonthedesign ofmapsonthecomputerdisplay
already existsandwe can alsolook to television to findsomeideasaboutthe
layoutofpicturesandtheuseof color.The next questionis:Mustweconsider
the dynamicaspect ofmapsequenceswhen\Nesymbolize singlemaps? For
example,howdoweselectdifferentdensities inananimatedchoroplethrnap
sequence,orwhataboutlabeling isolines inan animatedmap?Andfinally,
there is theaspect ofmapcomplexity.Inananimatedmapsequencethe user
Number13, Fall1992cartograplzic perspectives7
will see a singlemapforonlyashorttime,sothemapcannotbe toocomplex.
Buthowcomplt.?'\canthemapbe? These issuesmustbe tested.
Legenddesign
Animatedmapsequencesaredifferentthan staticmaps, therefore, the
legend, theexplanationofamap,shouldbedifferent inan animatedmap.
Howmustit be designed?Multimediaofferthe possibility tocombine
animation·withsound.Therefore, the legendcanbeanaudioexplanation.
But isanaudioexplanation sufficientfor thecompleteunderstandingof
the animation,ormustitbecompletedby a visual legend?Ifwe need a
graphicallegend,wehave to thinkaboutthe design.Surely,it would
havetobeadynamiclegend;ho·wever, italsomustbe readablefor the
user.
Speedofanimatedsequences
Weknowthatincomputeranimation20-25picturesphsecond are
required for the perceptionofacontinuousmovementorchange.Butwe
donotknowhowfast ananimatedsequence created forthe depictionof
relationshipsmustbe, sothat the usercanrecognize the objectsand
relationshipsofthemapsequence.This isaproblemespecially for
animationonvideo because the sequencescannot becontrolledbythe
userandthe speed cannot be changed.
Creationandcontrolofananimatedmapsequence
Cartographic animationwillbecome awidespread visualizationtoolonly
if the creation of animatedmapsequencesis not too difficult.Auser
interfacethatallowstheuser toproduceanimations easilyhas to be
designed.Forthb,usefulcartographic animationfunctionssuchas
changingtheview-pointormovinganobjectmustbe definedandar-
ranged inmenus.With thesevarious animationoperations, theuserhas
thepotentialtocomposecomplex animation sequences.Ideas for this
havebeen suggestedbyMonmonier(1989).Asecondandvery important
point is the interactivityofananimation.Ifanimationis to bemorethan
just a film, itmusthave the possibilityofinteraction. Animationsystems
shouldhavetheminimumability tostopandrestart thesequenceandto
changethespeed. The animation for graphical explorationofadataset
musthave a \'ar1etyofcontrollingfunctions. We havetothinkaboutthe
wholerangeofinteractionsthat cartographic animationrequires.
Animationtechniques
Wealsoneedmoreknowledgeofthe different animation techniquesand
forwhattypesofanimationtheyworkbest.Ourexperiencein this area is
limitedbecause only afew cartographic animationsha,·e been realized.
Gersmehl(1990)has examined this issueanddescribesnineanimation
metaphorsandtheiruse.Furtherworkshouldexpandthissubject.
Cartographic animationrequiresa varietyofresearch on design,
creation,anduseofanimatedmapsequences.Becauseofthe potentialof
animation for cartography,moreattentionto researchisrequired in this
field.
Thepotential ofcomputeranimationhasalready beenrealizedbydiffer-
ent disciplines.Itcan also beusedfor cartographyasapowerfulvisual-
ization toolthattranscends thepotential oftheprintedmap.With anima-
tion,dynamicandinteractivemapsequencescanbecreatedthatshow
changes overtimeorcanbe used to depictorexplore spatialandstatisti-
calrelationships.
COCLUSIO>J
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