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Molecular Biology : Assignment

Added on - 18 Jun 2021

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Running head:MOLECULAR BIOLOGYMolecular biologyName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor note
1MOLECULAR BIOLOGYToxin/DrugCorrect source and TargetEffectTetrodotoxin(Pufferfishpoison)It is the neurotoxin obtainedfrom theTetraodontiformesincluding puffer fish whichcarries the toxin as well assome bacteriaThe target of the toxin is thesodium channel blocker. It isthe competitive binder of thenegativelychargedcarboxylate groups on sidechainsof sodium channel.The interaction at the targetsite takes place with thepositively charged guanidinogroup on toxin (Kao 2016).Tetrodotoxincompetes withhydrated sodium cationforbinding. It then enters thetheNa+-channel.The toxin mediates its effectby blocking the sodiumvoltage gated channelspresent in the nerve cells.The axon is not stimulated.Therefore, the sodium ionsare not released and the firingof the neuron action potentialis inhibited. The signaltransmission from the nervecells is inhibited by blockingthe conduction of nerveimpulses along the axons. Itfails to generate the positivemembranepotential.Eventually the victim diesfrom respiratory paralysis.This effect is mediated as thehosts own sodium cgan ell isresistant to toxin due tomutation and change inamino acid sequenceThe effect can becounteracted by theanticholinesterase. However,it needs to be tested. Theneurological complications ofthe venom s reduced by thecholinergic agents such asNeostigmine. It facilitates thetransmission of the nerveimpulse across the myoneuraljunction. The systematicabsorption of the toxin isreduced by the GIdecontaminants such asactivated charcoal(Kao 2016; Lago et al. 2015)MDMAor EcstasyMDMAor Ecstasy is apsychoactive drug of abuseused for recreation. TheMDMA enters cell bymonoamine transporters andinhibits the transporter
2MOLECULAR BIOLOGYmolecular formulation =C11H15NO2It is also known as neurotoxinThe target for the drug are-sodium dependent serotoninand adrenaline transporters,tryptophanhydroxylase,Sodium-dependent dopaminetransporter,Sodium-dependentnoradrenalinetransporter( Collins, Kloekand Elliott 2013)MDMA exhibits its effect byenhancing the serotoninrelease and inhibition ofreuptakebytheserotonergicbrain nerves. Itresults in themotorstimulation ad gives feelingof euphoria, and moodenhancement. It exhibits itstherapeutic affect byadrenergic uptake inhibitorsInside the cell the MDMAcauses oxidative inactivationand decrease the quantity ofthetryptophanhydroxylase. Itmakes the cells prone to theoxidative stress.The drug also increasesconcentrationofacetylcholine, dopamine andnorepinephrine in cytoplasmthrough phsophorylationtherapeutic effect includessuppression of dyskinesiaassociated with dopamineused for long term.The short term effects maybe hyperthermia, dehydration,insomnia, diarrhea, erectiledysfunction, loss of appetitite,impulsiveness, depressionThe long term effect of theseinteractions includes increasein permeability of the bloodbrain barrier and bacterialinfection subsequentlyThe effect can becounteracted by thedecontaminationwithactivated charcoal. Thepatient if anxious can besedatedwithbenzodiazepines.Nitroprussideis used tostabilise the cardiovasculardisturbances
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