Assignment on Mechanism of Chromosomes Mitotic
Added on - 21 Apr 2020
NameCity and stateName of the classInstructorInstitutionDateNumber of words: 1500Genetics report (questions and answers)1. Chromatins are found in Eukaryotic chromosomes. Explain what chromatins are and theirstructure as found in eukaryotic chromosomesChromatins are a complex of nucleic acids either RNA or DNA that condenses to a chromosomeduring cell multiplication. In eurokaryotic (organisms with membrane bound nucleus) cells thechromatin is found within the nucleus where it helps in packaging of DNA into smaller volumesso as to fit in a cell. It also strengthens the DNA to allow for the process of meiosis and mitosisChromatin structure of eukaryotic chromosomesThe chromosomes contain long DNA strands that carry genetic information. The eukaryotic cellshave large genomes than prokaryotes that has multiple and linear chromosomes. However, thelength plus linear nature of the chromosomes increases the ability of keeping the genetic materialorganized as well as of passing the correct amount of DNA to every daughter cell during theprocess of mitosis.2. What are the transformations in chromatin structure that exist during the process of mitosis?
During the initial phase, interphase chromatin remains in condensed form as well as appearsloosely distributed in the entire nucleus. Condensation of the chromatin starts during theprophase stage where the chromosomes become visible and remains condensed in the rest of thephases of mitosis up to the final stage telophase.3. The mechanism of chromosomes mitotic separation.Before the commencement of anaphase, a replicated chromosomes reoffered to as sisterchromatids are aligned at the centre of the cell. The sister chromatids are joined at thecentromere where during this stage each chromosome pair is separated into two chromosomesthat are identical and independent. The chromosomes are then separated by the mitotic spindlewhich is made up of microtubules that are attached to the chromosome at one pole as well as tothe end of a cell at the other pole. However, the sister chromatids are divided concurrently at thecentromere where the separate chromosomes are pulled by a spindle to the other sides of thecell.4. What is interphase and what happens during this stage of the cell cycle?Interphase is a stage of the cell cycle where a cell spends most of its life. During this stage, thecell duplicates their DNA as it prepares for mitosis. Interphase can be defined as the metabolicstage of a cell where it get’s nutrients as well as metabolizes them , reads the DNA and performsother functions of the cell. A vast number of eukaryotic cells spend most of their time in thisphase where a cell gets ready for meiosis or mitosis. Diploid cells or somatic cells of the body gothrough mitosis so as to reproduce themselves via cell multiplication whilst diploid germ cells gothrough meiosis to form gametes for reproduction.5. What the percentage cell in each stage of the cell cycle denotesThe distribution of cells continues to decline as a cell undergoes meiosis or mitosis from theinitial stage, interphase to telophase.6.Calculating the mitotic index value for onion root samples
Mitotic index for the control group = (30/350) × 100= 8.57%Mitotic index for the dark cellar on earth = (12/312) × 100= 3.85%Mitotic index for the sunlight on earth in babybio plant feed = (72/480) ×100= 15%Mitotic index value for sunlight in space station = (60/480) ×100= 12.5%7. A table showing the number of m-phase cells, interphase cells plus the mitotic index for thedatasets.Growth conditionInterphasemetaphaseMitotic indexControl group (insunlight on earth)32078.75%In dark cellar on earth30023.85%In sunlight on earthwith babybio plantfeed4081915%In sunlight in spacestation4201612.5%